Human digestion and choking cows

Slideshow viewable online and downloadable here.

In response to another question from the Cs people: yes, cows can choke. The internet has a number of references to cows choking on (and eventually dying of) potatoes/turnips, milk, and afterbirth.



Fat and veggies

Some trivia related to our discussion on Bioenergetics and Digestion://

  • Females need a certain amount of body fat (~22%) to produce hormones needed for fertility. Check the Harvard link and the BBC news article.

“Three hundred trout are needed to support one man for a year.
The trout, in turn, must consume 90,000 frogs, that must consume 27 million grasshoppers that live off of 1,000 tons of grass.”
G. Tyler Miller, Jr., American Chemist (1971)

Bioenergetics and Digestion



  1. Trends and Various Strategies Used by Organisms to Process Food
  2. Process of Digestion in Man
  3. Disorders of the Human Digestive System

Core Concepts

  • Nutritional requirements
    • Animals are heterotrophs that require food for fuel, carbon skeletons, and essential nutrients.
    • Metabolic rate provides clues to an animal’s bioenergetic strategy.
  • Evolutionary adaptations of feeding mechanisms and digestive systems
    • Diverse feeding adaptations have evolved among animals.
    • Structural adaptations of digestive systems are often associated with diet.
    • Symbiotic microorganisms help nourish many vertebrates.

Continue reading

Format for writing individual research briefs

Individual Research Briefs (Be and K)



A. Real Life Problem/Question Being Addressed

  • Maximum of 3 sentences on the real-life problem and its significance in our lives

B. Solution/Hypothesis

  • Maximum of 5 sentences on your proposed solution including 1) why you think it will work and 2) why it is practical to perform given your resources.

C. Major Objectives

  • 2-5 goals you plan to achieve in your study
  • What data do you need to gather/tests do you need to perform to say that your proposed solution is effective?

D. Specifications/Minor Objectives

  • Break each major objective down into at least 2 measurable minor objectives/specifications.

E. Bibliography


  • Please legibly handwrite/type on a sheet of short bond paper (1” margins, Times New Roman, size 11, double-spaced).
  • Online submissions may be made to my email address. Please format your filenames as Name – Research Brief#.doc (e.g. Crisologo – Research Brief 1.doc). Your subject must be “Research Brief#”.
  • Deadline for the 1st Research Brief is Friday, June 27, 4PM at the STR unit for hard copies, 11:59PM for email submissions.