Bioenergetics and Digestion

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Topics

  1. Trends and Various Strategies Used by Organisms to Process Food
  2. Process of Digestion in Man
  3. Disorders of the Human Digestive System

Core Concepts

  • Nutritional requirements
    • Animals are heterotrophs that require food for fuel, carbon skeletons, and essential nutrients.
    • Metabolic rate provides clues to an animal’s bioenergetic strategy.
  • Evolutionary adaptations of feeding mechanisms and digestive systems
    • Diverse feeding adaptations have evolved among animals.
    • Structural adaptations of digestive systems are often associated with diet.
    • Symbiotic microorganisms help nourish many vertebrates.

  • Overview of food processing
    • The four main stages of food processing are ingestion, digestion, absorption, and elimination.
    • Digestion occurs in specialized compartments.
    • The oral cavity, pharynx, and esophagus initiate food processing.
    • The stomach stores food and performs preliminary digestion.
    • The small intestine is the major organ of digestion and absorption.
    • Reclaiming water is a major function of the large intestine.
    • Hormones regulate digestion.
    • Reclaiming water is a major function of the large intestine.
  • Nutrition and disorders of the human digestive system
    • A healthful diet provides both fuel and building materials.
    • Nutritional disorders damage health.

Keywords

  • absorption
  • alimentary canal
  • amebocytes
  • anorexia
  • bile
  • bolus
  • brush border
  • bulimia
  • cecum
  • chyme
  • complete digestive tract
  • crop
  • digestion
  • duodenum
  • elimination
  • endocytosis
  • enzyme
  • esophagus
  • essential nutrient
  • extracellular digestion
  • filter feeders
  • gallbladder
  • gastrovascular cavity
  • gizzard
  • heterotroph
  • ileum
  • incomplete digestive tract
  • ingestion
  • intracellular digestion
  • jejunum
  • large intestine
  • liver
  • malnutrition
  • microvilli
  • minerals
  • nutrition
  • obesity
  • pancreas
  • peristalsis
  • peptic ulcers
  • peristalsis
  • phagocytosis
  • pharynx
  • salivary glands
  • small intestine
  • sphincters
  • stomach
  • undernutrition
  • vesicles
  • villus
  • vitamins

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