Transport Guide Questions for Review

You know that you know enough about transport mechanisms if you can answer all of these questions:

  • Describe the structure of the cell membrane.  How does its structure allow it to become selectively permeable to different types of materials?
  • Describe the different processes of cellular transport in terms of energy required, substances involved, direction of flow of substances:
    • Passive transport
      • Diffusion
      • Facilitated diffusion
      • Osmosis
    • Active transport
    • Endocytosis
      • Phagocytosis
      • Pinocytosis

  • Define isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic solutions. What happens to an animal cell when immersed in this kind of medium? What happens to a plant cell?
  • Describe the flow of transport within the cell via a) the endomembrane system and b) cytoplasmic streaming or cyclosis.
  • Differentiate between phloem and xylem in terms of structure and function.
  • What types of cells make up the phloem and xylem? Describe their structures/draw.
  • Describe adaptations of the roots and detail how they aid in the function of absorption.
  • Which materials are absorbed by the roots?
  • How are water and dissolved minerals transported into the roots?
  • What is root pressure and what causes it?
  • What is the Casparian strip and how does it aid in the transport of materials into the root xylem?
  • Describe the transpiration-cohesion-tension mechanism by defining the associated terms and explaining how they work together in allowing water to rise in the plant.
  • How is the rate of transpiration controlled in the plant cell? What factors affect the rate of transpiration in a plant?
  • Describe the bulk or pressure flow mechanism by defining the associated terms and explaining it works to transport phloem sap from sources to sinks.
  • What is girdling? How can girdling kill a plant or result in larger fruits?
  • Describe the following systems associated with transport in animals: a) diffusion, b) water-vascular system, c) open circulatory system, d) closed circulatory system. Give the advantages and the disadvantages of each and name the types of animals associated with the given type of transport system.
  • Compare the designs of vertebrate hearts in terms of a) number of chambers, b) flow of blood [single/double circulation], c) amount of mixing of oxygen-rich and -poor blood that can occur and d) advantages/disadvantages.

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