LT1 Pointers

  1. Parts of and pathway of blood in the heart
  2. Human circulation
  3. Lymphatic system
  4. Blood composition and function
  5. Cardiovascular diseases
  6. Cellular respiration and photosynthesis
  7. Respiratory media and respiratory organs

Presentation 09 (Human Circulation) and Presentation 10 (Respiration) are available from this site. Click.

And here’s an interesting link for those of you who wonder how sharks sleep.


Core Concepts for Respiration and Gas Exchange

Core Concepts

1. Types of respiration

  • Cellular respiration – The chemical breakdown of food substances to yield ATP (aerobic and/or anaerobic)
  • Gas exchange – Different organisms use different kinds of breathing apparatus in order to transport oxygen throughout its body

2. Evolutionary adaptations of gas exchange systems and respiration

  • Different plant adaptations in acquiring CO2 from the environment evolved (C3, C4 and CAM pathways).
  • Structural adaptations of respiratory apparatus depend on the animal’s habitat. The three most common respiratory organs are gills, tracheae, and lungs
  • The respiratory system and circulatory system cooperate directly with each other.

3. Mammalian respiration

  • The respiratory system is divided into the upper respiratory tract (nasal passages, mouth, throat, larynx and trachea) and lower respiratory tract (bronchi and the lungs).
  • Air enters (inhalation) the respiratory system due to a pressure drop inside the lungs (negative pressure).
  • Air exits (exhalation) the respiratory system due to an increase in pressure inside the lungs.
  • Breathing is regulated by control centers in the brain (medulla oblongata and pons.)
  • Gases are transported via passive diffusion throughout the body.

4. Respiratory diseases and their prevention

  • Respiratory disorders may be congenital or environmental.
  • Respiratory disorders can be prevented through a combination of proper diet and lifestyle change.

Heart dissection video

You can take a long at this video to prep for the heart dissection on Wednesday. This might also help you with your pre-lab.

This is how we will make the initial incision on Wednesday, much like slicing a mango.

The structures you will need to identify:

  • Chambers of the heart
  1. left atrium
  2. right atrium
  3. left ventricle
  4. right ventricle
  • Valves
  1. tricuspid valve
  2. bicuspid valve
  3. aortic semilunar valve
  4. pulmonic/pulmonary semilunar valve
  • Blood vessels
  1. aorta
  2. inferior vena cava
  3. superior vena cava
  4. pulmonary artery
  5. pulmonary vein
  • Other structures
  1. chordae tendinae
  2. interventricular septum
  3. papillary muscles
  4. trabeculae carnae