Guide questions for review

I’ll be online later this evening to entertain your questions. Feel free to IM or email me. Good luck! 🙂

Osmoregulation and excretion

  1. Differentiate between osmoconformers and osmoregulators.
  2. What osmoregulatory adaptations do marine and freshwater fishes employ to enable them to survive in their habitats?
  3. Where do N-wastes come from?
  4. What are the 3 major types of N-wastes? Rank them in terms of toxicity, amount of water needed for excretion, and energy needed for synthesis.
  5. What kind of animal would excrete a given type of N-waste? Why?
  6. What are the osmoregulatory structures of the following animals: cnidarians, echinoderms, freshwater protists and sponges.
  7. What are the 4 major process associated with excretory systems?
  8. What are the excretory systems of the following animals:  flatworms, roundworms, annelids, molluscs, crustaceans, insects, fishes and other vertebrates?
  9. Trace the flow of N-wastes in the human excretory system from its origin in the liver to its exit from the body as urine (name all the blood vessels and structures associated with the nephron).
  10. Describe the processes that occur in the glomerulus, proximal tubule, loop of Henle, distal tubule, and collecting duct.
  11. What is the importance of the difference in permeability to water and solutes of the cells in the walls of the Loop of Henle and collecting duct?
  12. ADH and RAAS both act on the nephrons, what is the difference between them?

Thermoregulation and the integumentary system

  1. What are the four processes of heat exchange?
  2. What is the main difference between ecto and endotherms?
  3. Describe the effect of vasodilation, vasoconstriction, and countercurrent heat exchange on an animal’s temperature.
  4. Describe the effect of shivering and nonshivering thermogenesis on an endotherm.
  5. What is torpor? What are the three kinds of torpor?
  6. What is the thermostat of humans and other terrestrial mammals?
  7. What are the three major layers of the skin? Describe them briefly.
  8. Give three examples of epidermal derivatives that may be found in the dermis.

Musculoskeletal system

  1. What is the difference between a hydrostatic, exo-, and endoskeleton?
  2. What is the difference between the axial and appendicular skeleton? Give examples of bones that belong to each.
  3. Name 1 similarity and 1 difference between the pectoral girdle + upper extremities and the pelvic girdle + lower extremities.
  4. What are the four types of bones?
  5. What are joints? Give examples of each kind.
  6. What are the three types of bone cells and what are the functions of each?
  7. Contrast compact and spongy bone.
  8. Contrast intramembranous and endochondral bone formation.
  9. Why do we need to remodel or reshape bone?
  10. What is the simplest organism with muscle fibers?
  11. Describe the three types of vertebrate muscle tissues.
  12. Define the following: tendon, origin, insertion, fascia, antagonistic pairs.
  13. Arrange the following terms from smallest to largest: fascicle, thin filament, sarcomere, myofibril, whole skeletal muscle, and muscle fiber.
  14. Describe the roles of the following in muscle contraction: ATP, acetylcholine, nerve impulse, calcium ions, troponin, tropomyosin, actin, myosin, sarcoplasmic reticulum, and sarcolemma.
  15. What is the all-or-none response of muscle fibers?
  16. Differentiate a twitch from tetanus.
  17. Differentiate a slow twitch from a fast twitch fiber; dark meat from white meat.

Bonus Recitation Points (up to 10!)

Hi Cs and Rb, I’ve set the number of perfect recitation points to 20 for Cs and 15 for Rb (Cs had two group games for reci points that Rb was unable to avail of). If you exceed the perfect number of reci points, this will spill over to other class participation components such as the notebook and hw/sw (just because it’s Christmas).

You can answer any or all for 1 point apiece. Please be sure to cite your sources. You can email this/print this out/submit it with your notebook on Thursday.

  1. What sort of information can you get from a urinalysis?
  2. Does your pee smell bad after eating asparagus? Why/why not?
  3. Give an example of a completely ectothermic mammal as well as 2 other facts that make it different from other mammals (hint: did you use to watch Kim Possible?).
  4. Some bears do not hibernate, preferring to “den” instead. What is the difference between the two?
  5. Why do we itch?
  6. How do Botox injections work?
  7. Play Whack A Bone and copy the scoreboard for the three levels of arm, leg, and core.
  8. Complete the muscle jigsaw here and send me a screencap (via email: You can choose either the male or female muscles.
  9. How do bodybuilders build muscle?
  10. According to the latest bit of research (2007/8), what causes muscle fatigue? What evidence led to this conclusion?

People who do NOT need to do this activity (over over perfect na kayo): Cs1, 8, 10, 13, 24, 28, Rb5, 9, 11, 28.

Third Quarter Perio

The Bio Perio is the last exam for the year. It is scheduled for Thursday, December 18, after Math. The test types and number of items are the same as last quarter’s Perio.  Study smart!


  • Osmoregulation and Excretion
    • osmoregulation in lower forms and in vertebrates
    • types of N-wastes
    • excretion in lower forms and vertebrates
    • the human excretory system
    • nephron anatomy and urine formation
    • hormones and the human kidney
  • Thermoregulation and the Integumentary System
    • heat exchange processes
    • adaptations for thermoregulation of endo- and ectotherms
    • functions and structures in the skin
  • Musculoskeletal System
    • musculoskeletal system of lower forms
    • functions of the musculoskeletal system
    • parts of the human skeleton
    • types of bones and joints
    • methods of bone formation/ossification
    • kinds of muscles
    • muscle organization (bundles within bundles)
    • muscle contraction and the sliding filament theory
    • types of twitches (Rb, please read this link or the appropriate section in your book)
    • the all-or-none response

Review by hunting for the old presentations, reading the books, and visiting this online textbook for more clarifications.

Bio notebooks are required for those with grades lower than 1.75. EOQR’s are for everyone (look for them in previous posts, just answer the first 4 questions). Due to insistent public demand, I will have another optional reci activity for those who may opt to complete it (to be posted later). I will leave trays in the exam rooms of Cs and Rb. Please make sure your notes, etc. are in it by 1030 AM on Dec 18.

Good luck and God bless!

LT2 Resources

*Thanks for bringing the non-working link to Presentation 15 to my attention, Mika. It’s now reuploaded and should work well. Sorry for the hassle.*

Thermoregulation and Integumentary System as well as Skeletal System presentations can be found two posts down.

  1. Integumentary System Outline (doc file)
  2. Skeletal Muscle Structure and Sliding Filament Theory (doc file)
  3. Presentation 15 – Musculoskeletal System (Part II)

Other links to animations and videos:

  1. Bone formation
  2. Whole muscle structure (requires real player)
  3. Muscle fiber and myofibril structure (swf file)
  4. Sliding filament theory (swf file)
  5. Howstuffworks version of muscles (keep clicking)

You may email me any questions you have while reviewing and I’ll answer them by 2am tomorrow. Good luck!