Guide questions for review

I’ll be online later this evening to entertain your questions. Feel free to IM or email me. Good luck! 🙂

Osmoregulation and excretion

  1. Differentiate between osmoconformers and osmoregulators.
  2. What osmoregulatory adaptations do marine and freshwater fishes employ to enable them to survive in their habitats?
  3. Where do N-wastes come from?
  4. What are the 3 major types of N-wastes? Rank them in terms of toxicity, amount of water needed for excretion, and energy needed for synthesis.
  5. What kind of animal would excrete a given type of N-waste? Why?
  6. What are the osmoregulatory structures of the following animals: cnidarians, echinoderms, freshwater protists and sponges.
  7. What are the 4 major process associated with excretory systems?
  8. What are the excretory systems of the following animals:  flatworms, roundworms, annelids, molluscs, crustaceans, insects, fishes and other vertebrates?
  9. Trace the flow of N-wastes in the human excretory system from its origin in the liver to its exit from the body as urine (name all the blood vessels and structures associated with the nephron).
  10. Describe the processes that occur in the glomerulus, proximal tubule, loop of Henle, distal tubule, and collecting duct.
  11. What is the importance of the difference in permeability to water and solutes of the cells in the walls of the Loop of Henle and collecting duct?
  12. ADH and RAAS both act on the nephrons, what is the difference between them?

Thermoregulation and the integumentary system

  1. What are the four processes of heat exchange?
  2. What is the main difference between ecto and endotherms?
  3. Describe the effect of vasodilation, vasoconstriction, and countercurrent heat exchange on an animal’s temperature.
  4. Describe the effect of shivering and nonshivering thermogenesis on an endotherm.
  5. What is torpor? What are the three kinds of torpor?
  6. What is the thermostat of humans and other terrestrial mammals?
  7. What are the three major layers of the skin? Describe them briefly.
  8. Give three examples of epidermal derivatives that may be found in the dermis.

Musculoskeletal system

  1. What is the difference between a hydrostatic, exo-, and endoskeleton?
  2. What is the difference between the axial and appendicular skeleton? Give examples of bones that belong to each.
  3. Name 1 similarity and 1 difference between the pectoral girdle + upper extremities and the pelvic girdle + lower extremities.
  4. What are the four types of bones?
  5. What are joints? Give examples of each kind.
  6. What are the three types of bone cells and what are the functions of each?
  7. Contrast compact and spongy bone.
  8. Contrast intramembranous and endochondral bone formation.
  9. Why do we need to remodel or reshape bone?
  10. What is the simplest organism with muscle fibers?
  11. Describe the three types of vertebrate muscle tissues.
  12. Define the following: tendon, origin, insertion, fascia, antagonistic pairs.
  13. Arrange the following terms from smallest to largest: fascicle, thin filament, sarcomere, myofibril, whole skeletal muscle, and muscle fiber.
  14. Describe the roles of the following in muscle contraction: ATP, acetylcholine, nerve impulse, calcium ions, troponin, tropomyosin, actin, myosin, sarcoplasmic reticulum, and sarcolemma.
  15. What is the all-or-none response of muscle fibers?
  16. Differentiate a twitch from tetanus.
  17. Differentiate a slow twitch from a fast twitch fiber; dark meat from white meat.

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