For Li, K, Sr: You may opt to answer and submit at most 15 out of the 22 questions for recitation credit on the day of the LT. You can write the answers on a sheet of intermediate pad or email me your answers as well as any questions you may have: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The following class numbers are REQUIRED to answer these guide questions — Sr16, Li29, and K02.
Levels of Biological Organization
- List the different levels of biological organization from simple to complex.
- Define emergent property and give an example.
Multicellularity and the Volvocine Series
- What are some adaptations to get around the problem posed by SA:V?
- Describe the colonial theory using the volvocine series as a model to explain the evolution of multicellularity.
- Discuss the advantages and problems of multicellularity.
Plant and Animal Tissues
- Describe the structures of the different plant and animal tissues and relate these to their functions.
Bioenergetics and Digestion
- Define: metabolism, anabolism, and catabolism.
- What is the relationship between size and relative metabolic rate (per unit mass).
- Enumerate the four processes that must be accomplished during digestion.
- Describe the following digestive processes in organisms with: a) intracellular digestion only, b) extracellular digestion only, c) incomplete digestive systems, and d) complete digestive system. Name the types of animals associated with the given type of system.
- Enumerate some observable trends in the evolution of digestive systems in vertebrates and in mammals.
- Trace the pathway of food and the different enzymes it encounters in the human digestive tract.
- Describe what happens to food in the small and large intestines.
- Enumerate 3 hormones associated with digestion and give their effects on specific portions of the digestive system.
Transport and Circulation
- Describe the structure of the cell membrane. How does its structure allow it to become selectively permeable to different types of materials?
- Describe the different processes of cellular transport in terms of energy required, substances involved, direction of flow of substances.
- Define isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic solutions. What happens to an animal cell when immersed in this kind of medium? What happens to a plant cell?
- Differentiate between phloem and xylem in terms of structure and function.
- How are water and dissolved minerals transported into the roots? What role does the Casparian strip play in the transport of materials into the root xylem?
- Describe the root pressure transpiration-cohesion-tension mechanism by defining the associated terms and explaining how they work together in allowing water to rise in the plant.
- Describe the bulk or pressure flow mechanism by defining the associated terms and explaining it works to transport phloem sap from sources to sinks.
- Describe the following systems associated with transport in animals: a) diffusion, b) water-vascular system, c) open circulatory system, d) closed circulatory system. Give the advantages and the disadvantages of each and name the types of animals associated with the given type of transport system.