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Guide Questons for Vertebrate Circulation
1. Describe the plans of the circulatory systems of fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals and explain why these are suited to these organisms.
2. Describe what happens to the chambers and valves of the heart during each phase of the cardiac cycle.
3. Trace the flow of electrical stimulation in the heart.
4. What causes the lub dub sound of heartbeat?
5. Define the following: cardiac output, pulse, and blood pressure.
6. compare the structures of arteries, capillaries, and veins and relate these with their functions.
7. Why does blood slow down in capillary beds?
8. What is the function of precapillary sphincters?
9. Compare the osmotic and hydrostatic pressures at both ends of a capillary.
10. How do veins transport blood back to the heart?
11. How does a clot form?
12. What are the major functions of the lymphatic system?
Guide Questions for Respiration
These are already in the group discussion guide.
1. Differentiate between aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration in terms of amount of energy generated and regions of the cell in which they occur.
2. Differentiate between photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
3. Differentiate between the dark (Calvin cycle) and light reactions of photosynthesis.
4. Describe the adaptations of C3, C4, and CAM plants and the advantages of each adaptation.
5. Give examples of animals that use the following structures for gas exchange: cell surface, moist skin, gills, tracheal system/tracheae, and lungs.
6. Define ventilation and countercurrent exchange and explain how these mechanisms increase the amount of oxygen obtained by the gills of aquatic animals.
7. Trace the pathway of air in mammalian respiratory systems.
8. Differentiate among the breathing mechanisms of amphibians, reptiles and mammals, and birds.
9. Name the two regions of the brain that regulate breathing and describe their specific functions.
10. Describe some adaptations of deep-diving mammals to address their oxygen needs.
11. What are the advantages and disadvantages of air/water as a respiratory medium?
12. Define tidal volume, vital capacity, and residual volume.
13. How does a rise in carbon dioxide levels in the bloodstream related to pH changes and oxygen levels?
14. Describe cooperativity and affinity as they apply to a hemoglobin molecule.
15. When does a Bohr shift occur?
16. Describe how carbon dioxide is transported by the bloodstream.
17. What is the difference between fetal and adult hemoglobin. Why?
The periodic exam is not solely multiple choice. The bulk is composed of respiration and circulation but some (around 15 questions) are from earlier lessons (biological organization to digestion). You can check this earlier post for some guide questions on that.