Excretion Pair SW/HW for Sr and K

Please answer on a sheet of pad paper. No need to copy the questions. You can use any reliable reference as long as you cite them. This will be collected next meeting. Thanks very much!
  1. Differentiate between osmoconformers and osmoregulators.
  2. What osmoregulatory adaptations do marine and freshwater fishes employ to enable them to survive in their habitats?
  3. Where do N-wastes come from? What are the 3 major types of N-wastes? Rank them in terms of toxicity, amount of water needed for excretion, and energy needed for synthesis. What kind of animal would excrete a given type of N-waste? Why?
  4. What are the osmoregulatory structures of the following animals: cnidarians, echinoderms, freshwater protists and sponges.
  5. Describe the 4 major process associated with excretory systems briefly?
  6. What are the excretory systems of the following animals: flatworms, roundworms, annelids, molluscs, crustaceans, insects, fishes and other vertebrates?
  7. Trace the flow of N-wastes in the human excretory system from its origin in the liver to its exit from the body as urine (name all the blood vessels and structures associated with the nephron).
  8. Describe the processes that occur in the glomerulus, proximal tubule, loop of Henle, distal tubule, and collecting duct.
  9. What is the importance of the difference in permeability to water and solutes of the cells in the walls of the Loop of Henle and collecting duct?
  10. ADH and RAAS both act on the nephrons, what is the difference between them?
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