LT Coverage for Li, Sr, K

Hi all, LT will take place as scheduled next week. Coverage is Nervous System, Senses, Plant Hormones, and Endocrine System. Please check the Downloads tab for presentations, modules, HW, and lab rep format. Feel free to comment or email me if you need any clarifications. You may review using the guide questions below:

Nervous System

  1. What are the main functions of the nervous system?
  2. Describe the roles of the two types of cells that make up the nervous system.
  3. Name the parts and describe the functions of a neuron.
  4. Trace the pathway of a simple reflex action such as the knee-jerk reflex.
  5. Describe the events that occur during nerve impulse transmission.
  6. What is saltatory conduction and why is it important?
  7. How do nerve cells communicate with each other?
  8. Describe the nervous system plans and features across taxa and relate this to the animal’s symmetry and lifestyle.
  9. Describe the trends in the development of the vertebrate brain.
  10. List the components of the central nervous system and describe their functions.
  11. List the components of the peripheral nervous system and describe their functions.
  12. Compare the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system in terms of function.
  13. Enumerate the parts of the vertebrate brain and describe their functions.

Sensory Mechanisms

  1. Differentiate between sensation and perception.
  2. Describe the five kinds of sensory receptors and give examples of each.
  3. Differentiate interoreceptors from exteroreceptors and give examples of each.

Plant Hormones

  1. What are tropisms? Give examples of these.
  2. Describe the roles of abscisic acid, auxin, cytokinin, ethylene, and gibberellin in regulating plant growth.
  3. Describe how the Darwin and Went experiments led to the discovery of auxin as the major factor behind phototropism.

Endocrine System

  1. What are hormones?
  2. Relate the function of the endocrine system with that of the nervous system.
  3. Differentiate between (+) and (-) feedback. Why are feedback mechanisms important in regulating hormone production?
  4. Why can hormones only affect specific cells and not others?
  5. Describe the role of hormones in invertebrates.
  6. Differentiate between the mode of action of a peptide/protein hormone vs that of a steroid/thyroid hormone.
  7. Why are signal transduction pathways important?
  8. Describe the role of the hypothalamus in the endocrine system.
  9. Describe the sources and functions of the hormones found in p.899 of your \m/ bio book.
  10. Describe the role of negative feedback in the regulation of thyroid hormones and maintenance of blood glucose levels.
  11. Describe the roles of the hormones (GnRH, LH, FSH, estrogen, progesterone) secreted by the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary gland, and ovary in regulating the female reproductive cycle.

Reproductive System (included in Perio, but not in LT)

  1. Compare asexual and sexual reproduction and discuss advantages and disadvantages of each.
  2. Describe the different mechanisms of asexual reproduction (e.g. fission, budding, gemmules, fragmentation).
  3. Relate the choice of reproductive strategy with the availability of mates and resources, environment, and the lifestyle of the organism.
  4. Compare internal and external fertilization and discuss advantages and disadvantages of each.
  5. Enumerate the parts and describe the functions of the male and female reproductive systems.
  6. Compare the structure of the sperm cell with that of the egg cell.
  7. Describe the events that occur during fertilization.

Plant Hormone Experiment Mat and Met

Methodology

A. Root initiation
The ten mongo seeds in the cotyledonary stage, germinated for around five days, were prepared by the group. The roots, including the portion of the stem that is whitish, were cut off. 50ml of a 10ppm IAA (indole acetic acid) was placed into one small beaker. The other beaker was filled with 50ml distilled water. Aluminum paper was used to cover the two beakers, and was drilled with five well-spaced holes for each beaker. De-rooted seedlings were inserted through the holes, and 2-3cm of each was immersed in the solution. The beakers were left inside the room and were observed 4-5 days after.

B. Stem Elongation
A thin layer of washed sand was placed into four 400-ml (or 600-ml) beakers. One beaker was saturated with 20ml of 1 pap GA3 (gibberellic acid) solution; the second with 20ml of 10ppm GA3 solution; the third with 20ml of 100ppm GA3 solution; and the fourth with 20ml distilled water. Each beaker was seeded with ten germinating mongo seeds, germinated for around four days. Petri dish lids were used to cover each beaker. After five days, the length of the stems of the plants were measured and compared.

C. Germination Inhibitor
The bottoms of four finger bowls were lined with filter paper. The first bowl was introduced with 10ml crude papaya extract (full concentration); the second with 10ml of 50% aqueous papaya extract; the third with 10ml of 25% aqueous papaya extract; and the fourth, with 10ml distilled water. Each beaker was seeded with 20 mongo seeds that were previously soaked for one hour. After around 3-4 days, the number of seeds germinated (seeds with more than 11mm-long radicles being considered germinated) was recorded.

D. Fruit Ripening
Three resealable bags were prepared. Three unripe bananas were placed inside each bag. One bag was placed with one overripe apple; the second with two overripe apples; and the third with none. The bags were resealed and were left for 3-7 days. The rate of fruit ripening was then observed.

Mini Research Report specifications

MINI-RESEARCH REPORT SPECIFICATIONS (from Ma’am Chupungco’s page)
Submission Specifications:
Filename:   <Group Code> MINI-RESEARCH REPORT
Example:   Mg11 MINI-RESEARCH REPORT.doc
Page Setup:      letter size, margins of 1.25” on bottom and left, 1” on right and top
Font Type:       Times New Roman or Garamond, size 12
Spacing:           double
Content:
<Names of Researcher/s>                                     <Group Code>

<Project Title>

I.  Summary of Methodology

II.  Results and Discussion

III.  Summary and Conclusions

Content Guide:
I.  Summary of Methodology
State the actual processes/activities done in passive formal past tense.

II. Results and Discussion
See sample results and discussion below.  Data should always be presented in text form.  Tables are used only to organize the presentation.  It will not speak for itself, hence an explanation of what is being presented should be given in text form.  Observable trends should be pointed out, e.g. the values are increasing as the independent variable decreases, or X1 is observed to have the highest value, followed by X3 then X2.  Use appropriate statistical tests when possible.  Interpretation of the observations should then follow.
Presentation of results are given on order of generation.
If there are no quantitative data that can be presented, then the results of the efforts on material sourcing and canvassing, design considerations, and other activities should be reported.  This could be in the form of prices of materials, procurement time, list of suppliers, types of materials considered, etc.   Difficulties encountered, or physical observations of materials considered should be included.  As interpretation and analysis, impact of the activities on the project’s implementability should be given.

III. Conclusions and Recommendations
This part should include a summary of the results, highlighting only the important ones that impact the feasibility of the project.  The conclusion should state how the cited results have been able to contribute to the accomplishment of the major and/or minor objectives of the project.
As recommendations, a statement on the feasibility of the project for continuation should be made.  If a further study will be made, point out any changes or modifications that need to be made to make the project more successful.  If the study is not worth continuing, the reasons for saying so should be given.

SAMPLE RESULTS & DISCUSSION
Weight Gain of Mice
Table 1 shows the recorded weights of the mice within a six-week period after being given 1ml of vitamin C.  The values on the zeroeth week are the recorded weights right before the feeding of vitamin C.  The data shows an increasing weight gain of all three mice up to third week, after which the weight gains decreased.  The total weight gain of each mouse after six weeks was computed to be 5.40g, 5.21g and 5.47g, respectively.  Taking the per cent gain per mouse, the values derived are 59.34%, 59.47% and 59.78%, respectively.

Table 1. Observed weights of mice given 1ml of vitamin C within a six-week period

Elapsed Time(in weeks) MOUSE 1 MOUSE 2 MOUSE 3
Observed Weight(g) Weight Gain(g) Observed Weight(g) Weight Gain(g) Observed Weight(g) Weight Gain(g)
0 9.10 8.76 9.15
1 9.87 0.77 9.36 0.6 9.96 0.81
2 10.70 0.83 10.16 0.8 10.87 0.91
3 11.87 1.17 11.22 1.06 12.26 1.39
4 12.90 1.03 12.18 0.96 13.45 1.19
5 13.78 0.88 13.11 0.93 14.42 0.97
6 14.50 0.72 13.97 0.86 14.62 0.20

The observed parabolic trend in the weekly weight gain of the mice could be attributed to the ….    Although the total weight gains are a bit varied, it could be observed that they were proportional to the starting weights of the mice.  This could mean that …

Guide questions for endocrine and reproductive systems

Hey guys, off to the hospital again. In case I don’t get the modules to you in time, please answer the following guide questions. You can get all the info you need from the powerpoint (Endocrine system) and the hardcore Bio book.

Endocrine System

  • What are hormones?
  • Relate the function of the endocrine system with that of the nervous system.
  • Differentiate between (+) and (-) feedback. Why are feedback mechanisms important in regulating hormone production?
  • Why can hormones only affect specific cells and not others?
  • Describe the role of hormones in invertebrates.
  • Differentiate between the mode of action of a peptide/protein hormone vs that of a steroid/thyroid hormone.
  • Why are signal transduction pathways important?
  • Describe the role of the hypothalamus in the endocrine system.
  • Describe the sources and functions of the hormones found in p.899 of your \m/ bio book.
  • Describe the role of negative feedback in the regulation of thyroid hormones and maintenance of blood glucose levels.
  • Describe the roles of the hormones (GnRH, LH, FSH, estrogen, progesterone) secreted by the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary gland, and ovary in regulating the female reproductive cycle.

Reproductive System

  • Compare asexual and sexual reproduction and discuss advantages and disadvantages of each.
  • Describe the different mechanisms of asexual reproduction (e.g. fission, budding, gemmules, fragmentation).
  • Relate the choice of reproductive strategy with the availability of mates and resources, environment, and the lifestyle of the organism.
  • Compare internal and external fertilization and discuss advantages and disadvantages of each.
  • Enumerate the parts and describe the functions of the male and female reproductive systems.
  • Compare the structure of the sperm cell with that of the egg cell.
  • Describe the events that occur during fertilization.

Life’s Greatest Miracle – required film for Bio2

In case you weren’t able to see this during YMSAT week, Sir Leo has a CD of .mov videos that you can copy and view or if you have a fast internet connection, you can watch the videos here. A transcript is available here.

REPRODUCTION – LIFE’S GREATEST MIRACLE (2001)

  • Guide Questions to answer as you view “Life’s Greatest Miracle” (also available at the photocopier).
  • Please submit the answers to this on 1 whole sheet of pad paper or via email by Friday, Feb 5 (Individual work).

Chapter 1. Passing On Your DNA

1. Why is sexual reproduction more advantageous than cloning?

Chapter 2. The Egg’s Journey

2. Describe the path the egg takes after being released from the ovary.

3. The video states that an egg will survive only a few hours if not fertilized. More recent information suggests that an egg will survive at least 24 hours and perhaps as long as 48 hours if not fertilized. How does that fact influence the most fertile time when couples are attempting to avoid pregnancy using the rhythm method?

Chapter 3. The Sperm’s Journey

4. What kind of obstacles will a sperm encounter once it enters the female?

5. Where in the female reproductive tract does fertilization of the egg occur?

Chapter 4. The First Two Weeks

6. Why would more than 50% of all fertilized eggs not survive? What kind of problems could a fertilized egg encounter?

7. How do identical twins form?

8. How does the blastocyst prevent the mother’s immune system from destroying the developing embryo?

Chapter 5. The Embryo Takes Shape

9. Describe the three cell layers that develop and include what parts of the body those cell layers will become.

10. How are genes turned on?

Chapter 6. Messages in the Genes

11. Where is the SRY gene found? What does it do? When does it function?

12. How do fingers (and toes) become separated from each other in the developing fetus?

Chapter 7. Feeding the Growing Fetus

13. What is a placenta? What is the function of its villi?

14. Do maternal and fetal blood mix?

Chapter 8. The Third Trimester

15. Why is human childbirth so much more dangerous than the births of other animals?

credits to the following sites:

http://www.nvcc.edu/home/mwise/ELI/ELIAssignments/AssignmentsforWeeks11and12.html andhttp://www.biologycorner.com/worksheets/miracle.html

Presentation on Plant Hormones

Slideshow on plant hormones

Notes version of slideshow on plant hormones

Animation of auxin and tropisms

CN, Name:  ____________________________           Section:  __________________              Date:  _____________

MODULE ON PLANT HORMONES [Main reference: Biology, 5th ed., by Campbell et al. (pp. 751-760)]

Due before class begins on DAY 2 (Tues – Sr, Wed – K, Thurs – Li)

FILL IN THE BLANKS. (10 points)

  1. Hormones have two important characteristics: a) they are _______________ _______________ that are produced in one part of the body and transported to another location, and b) only _______________ concentrations are required to cause substantial changes in an organism.
  2. _______________ are growth responses to a given stimulus: they are considered _______________ when they cause an organ to grow towards them and _______________ when they cause an organ to grow away from them.
  3. _______________ is a response to light caused by a _______________ in the growth of the cells on both sides of a plant organ caused by a hormone called _______________.
  4. FW Went made use of a porous block of _______________ that he infused with the suspected growth substance from the _______________. He found that only the stems of blocks placed _______________ showed curvature. This is because the growth substance caused _____________________________________________.
  5. Stem growth and elongation is caused by low concentrations of the hormone _______________ while root growth and differentiation is caused by the hormone _______________.

ANIMATION (5 points)

View the animation at http://bcs.whfreeman.com/thelifewire/content/chp38/3801s.swf and explain how auxin causes gravitropism and phototropism.                                                                                                                               

RELATING TO REAL LIFE. (10 points)

  1. Give two examples of how plants respond to stimuli.
  2. Your mother grows beautiful ornamental plants on your condo’s window box. However, she is having problems with the uneven growth of these plants. What advice will you  give her so that her plants can grow in a more even fashion?
  3. Ethylene is a sweetish-smelling gas responsible for the characteristic odor of ripening fruits. Why is the saying that “one rotten apple spoils the whole barrel,” biologically true?
  4. Ornamental flowers from Baguio or Tagaytay are often sprayed with a plant hormone to maintain freshness before they are transported to Manila. Which plant hormone would be most appropriate for this function? Why?
  5. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a stress hormone that causes seed dormancy and inhibits growth. Under which situations would large amounts of ABA be needed by the plant?

GOING FURTHER. (Bonus = + 2 points)

The rapid closing of the makahiya plant (Mimosa pudica) in response to mechanical stimuli is a rapid response that is not caused by hormones. What causes it?