[Bio2&3] Notebook Submissions

The Bio Periodic Exam will be on Tuesday, right after the Math Perio. Please submit your notebooks immediately after the test. A tray will be placed in your rooms for this purpose and will be collected promptly.

Make sure that your notebooks have the course outline as well as your answers to the end of quarter reflections.

These are the questions for the EOQR:

  1. What was your favorite topic this quarter? Why?
  2. Which misconceptions did you have that were corrected by discussions or activities?
  3. What other questions/clarifications do you have on the topics discussed?
  4. Which concepts were you able to appreciate/apply?
  5. Cite an interesting recent discovery about one of the topics discussed and tell me what makes it interesting to you (include your reference).
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[Bio2] Perio – Transport resources

Plant transport guide questions (for Perio)
  • Differentiate between phloem and xylem in terms of structure and function.
  • How are water and dissolved minerals transported into the roots? What role does the Casparian strip play in the transport of materials into the root xylem?
  • Describe the root pressure transpiration-cohesion-tension mechanism by defining the associated terms and explaining how they work together in allowing water to rise in the plant.
  • Describe the bulk or pressure flow mechanism by defining the associated terms and explaining it works to transport phloem sap from sources to sinks.

[Bio2] Guide Questions for the Long Test

Cs, Li, Mg!, Na – Long Test will take place as scheduled but coverage is cut short. You may review using the guide questions given below. If you opt to answer this in your notebooks, recitation credit of 0.5 pts per correct answer will be given.
Guide Questions for the Bio 2 Loooooong Test (from Levels of Bio Organization to Cellular Transport)
Levels of Biological Organization
• List the different levels of biological organization from simple to complex.
• Define emergent property and give an example.
Multicellularity and the Volvocine Series
• What are some adaptations to get around the problem posed by SA:V?
• Describe the colonial theory using the volvocine series as a model to explain the evolution of multicellularity.
• Discuss the advantages and problems of multicellularity.
Plant and Animal Tissues
• Describe the structures of the different plant and animal tissues and relate these to their functions.
Bioenergetics and Digestion
• Define: metabolism, anabolism, and catabolism.
• What is the relationship between size and relative metabolic rate (per unit mass).
• Enumerate the four processes that must be accomplished during digestion.
• Describe the following digestive processes in organisms with: a) intracellular digestion only, b) extracellular digestion only, c) incomplete digestive systems, and d) complete digestive system. Name the types of animals associated with the given type of system.
• Enumerate some observable trends in the evolution of digestive systems in vertebrates and in mammals.
• Trace the pathway of food and the different enzymes it encounters in the human digestive tract.
• Describe what happens to food in the small and large intestines.
• Enumerate 3 hormones associated with digestion and give their effects on specific portions of the digestive system.
Transport and Circulation
• Describe the structure of the cell membrane.  How does its structure allow it to become selectively permeable to different types of materials?
• Describe the different processes of cellular transport in terms of energy required, substances involved, direction of flow of substances.
• Define isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic solutions. What happens to an animal cell when immersed in this kind of medium? What happens to a plant cell?

[Bio3] Guide questions for review (LT2)

Exam will take place as scheduled tomorrow, Tues. Reebop worksheets are also due then until 12nn at the Bio unit.

Coverage is Mendelian Genetics (from Mendel’s discoveries ’til problem solving). You can review by solving the prob set and questions for discussion. Presentation may be found under the Downloads tab or viewed below and answers to the Q’s for D are below.

Here are some guide questions to aid you in the concepts part. As usual, you may answer these in your notebooks for class participation points. You can consult the following sites to help you out: Biology Basics and UC Open Access.

  1. Using a Venn Diagram, compare and contrast between the following related terms:
    • gene and allele
    • character and trait
    • dominant and recessive
    • phenotype and genotype
    • genotypes of P generation and genotypes of the F1 generation
    • homozygous and heterozygous
    • law of segregation and law of independent assortment
    • law of addition and law of multiplication
  2. Enumerate some reasons why pea plants were good choices for experiments on genetics.
  3. Enumerate three of Mendel’s most significant conclusions regarding his experiments on pea plants.

Also, you may want to take a break and apply your knowledge of genetics to win at this cool (spore-like) game. Do take a screenshot of your thing.

Answers to questions in the presentation

Monohybrid cross

1. Ss x Ss
Fraction of offspring that are S_ = 3/4

2.  Yy x yy
yy offspring = 1/2
A. YY x yy
B. yy

3.
A. phenotype: all black
genotype: all Bb
B. phenotype: 3 black:1 white
genotype: 1BB:2Bb:1bb
C. phenotype: all black
genotype: 1BB:1Bb

4. WW x ww
A. phenotypic ratio: all white
genotypic ratio: all Ww
B. phenotypic ratio: 3 white: 1 yellow
genotypic ratio: 1WW:2Ww:1ww
C. phenotypic ratio: 1 white: 1 yellow
genotypic ratio: 1Ww: 1ww

Dihybrid and trihybrid cross problems
1.  RT –> tongue-roller and PTC taster
Woman’s genotype: RRtt
man genotype: RrTt
child1 genotype: RRTt
child2 genotype: RrTt
child3 genotype: Rrtt

RRtt=(1/2)(1/2)=1/4
3 of the 12 are expected to be RRtt

RRTt x RrTt
genotypes of offspring = 1RRTT:2RRTt:1RRtt:1RrTT:2RrTt:1Rrtt
phenotypes of offspring = 3 tongue-rollers, PTC tasters: 1 tongue-roller, non-PTC taster

2. A. genotypic ratio = 1AABBCC:1AABBCc:1AABbCC:1AABbCc:2AaBBCC:2AaBBCc:2AaBbCC:2AaBbCc:1aaBBCC:1aaBBCc:1aaBbCC:1aaBbCc
phenotypic ratio = 3 dominant for all three traits:1 recessive for A but dominant for B and C

B. genotypic ratio = 1AABBCC:2AABBCc:1AABBcc:1aaBBCC:2aaBBCc:1aaBBcc
phenotypic ratio = 3 dominant for all: 1 dominant for A and B, recessive for C: 3 recessive for A, dominant for B and C: 1 recessive for A, dominant for B, recessive for C

Answers to questions for discussion
1. Dick = Ffaa, Jane = Ffaa, Children’s genotype = ffaa
probability of 7th child being ffaa = 1/4

2.
A. (1) BBTT x bbtt
(2) all BbTt
(3) all black and trotting
B. (1) BBtt x bbTt
(2) 1BbTt:1Bbtt
(3) 1 black and trotting:1 black and pacing
C. (1) bbTt x Bbtt
(2) 1Bbtt:1BbTt:1bbtt:1bbTt
(3) 1 black and pacing:1 black and trotting:1 chestnut and pacing:1 chestnut and trotting
D. (1) bbtt x bbtt
(2) all bbtt
(3) all chestnut and pacing
E. (1) BbTt x BbTt
(2)1BBTT:2BBTt:1BBtt:2BbTT:4BbTt:2Bbtt:1bbTT:2bbTt:1bbtt
(3) 9 black trotting: 3 black pacing: 3 chestnut trotting:1 chestnut pacing
F.parents: B_Tt x B_Tt, 4 offspring: B_tt, parents are heterozygous for the trotting characteristic and may be either homozygous or heterozygous for the black color
G. bbtt x bbtt, probability of offspring: B_tt = 0%
H. stud = BbTt, 1st mare = B_Tt, 1st colt = B_tt
2nd mare = bbtt, 2nd colt = bbTt

3. PpRr x PpRr
A.ppR_ = 3/16
B.P_R_ = 9/16
C.pprr = 1/16
D.P_rr = 3/16
E.1/4
F.1/8
G.1/8
H.1/8

4. TtPpRr x Ttpprr
A. T_pprr = 3/16
B. ttP_R_ = 1/16
C. ttpprr = 1/16
D. T_P_R_ = 3/16
E. T_ppR_ = 3/16

5. A. phenotypic ratio = 27 two-eyed, two-horned non-flyers: 9 two-eyed, one-horned flyers: 9 two-eyed, one-horned non-flyers: 3 two-eyed, one-horned, flyers: 9 one-eyed, two-horned non-flyers: 3 one-eyed, two-horned flyers: 3 one-eyed, one-horned non-flyers: 1 one-eyed, one-horned flyers
B. 1/64 will be homozygous recessive for all three  desired traits
C. buy fresh breeding stock

[Bio2] Mythbusters Proposal and Project

It’s time to think about your mythbusters project. You have the freedom to group yourselves into teams of 6 members each. Please let me know this week who your teammates will be. Then decide which notion you want to explore and create the proposal. Proposal deadline is Friday, July 16 and the finished project is due on Friday, July 30. You can submit via email to toledo98@yahoo.com. If you need to bring electronic gadgets to school, please fill up the Object Permit Form from the DO and have me sign it.

Mythbusters Proposal format

  • Title – catchy and related to the project
  • Notion to be proven or debunked – must be related to either the digestive or circulatory systems, clearly stated, and an existing notion (‘di gawa-gawa lang)
  • Scientific basis/procedures/processes to be used in testing – will you be doing a simple experiment? consulting with an expert? doing a literature search or a survey?
  • 3 reliable references – NOT wikipedia, include at least one scientific journal source
  • Chosen medium (video/animation/presentation/poster/website) – note that videos or animations should not take more than 5 minutes

Some resources that you can explore to get ideas:

  1. MedicineNet’s slideshow on digestive diseases
  2. What color is blood? A video documentary
  3. A hodgepodge of common misconceptions
  4. Snopes.com’s medical misconceptions

Previous projects