[Bio3] – Long Test 2 Guide Questions

Gluon Guide Questions for the Second Long Test

DNA Replication and Repair

1.       Summarize the central dogma in a diagram.

2.       Define antiparallel and semiconservative following terms and relate it to the structure of DNA.

3.       Use the following terms associated with replication and create a flowchart showing the different stages: replication bubble and replication fork, helicase, single-strand binding proteins, RNA primer, primase, leading strand, lagging strand, DNA polymerase III, DNA polymerase I, DNA ligase, Okazaki fragments, and 5’à 3’.

4.       Differentiate between mismatch and excision repair.

5.       What are telomeres and what role do they play in protecting the integrity of the lagging strand of the DNA? (Also take a look at this article: http://www.engadget.com/2010/11/29/harvard-scientists-rejuvenate-elderly-mice-laugh-maniacally/)

Transcription and Translation

1.       Use the following terms associated with transcription and create a flowchart showing the different stages: promoter, transcription unit, terminator, template strand of DNA, transcription factors, TATA box, RNA polymerase II, transcription initiation complex, 3’ end, polyadenylation signal sequence, pre-mRNA.

2.       What happens during RNA processing and what purpose does it serve?

3.       Use the following terms associated with translation and create a flowchart showing the different stages: mRNA, codons, initiator tRNA, tRNA, anticodons, amino acids, rRNA, ribosomes, aminoacyl tRNA synthetase, large ribosome subunit, small ribosome subunit, E site, P site, A site, mRNA binding site, AUG, peptide bond, translocation, polypeptide, STOP codons, and release factor.

4.       What is the wobble phenomenon and what purpose could it serve?

[Bio2] Guide questions for the Looong Test and Perio

You can answer this on a sheet of paper or email me your answers. One correct/complete answer is worth 0.5 recitation points.

Immunity (no need to answer this if you did the groupwork on this already)

  1. Draw a flowchart illustrating the events that occur during an inflammatory response.
  2. Choose any two white blood cells and one type of antibody and sketch a character card for each of them (ala Pokemon cards or M:tG cards) describing their special abilities and attack/defense specialties.
  3. Create Venn diagrams comparing a) B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes, b) the characteristics of Class I and Class II MHC molecules, c) humoral and cell-mediated immune responses; d) the primary and secondary immune responses; and e) active and passive immunity.
  4. Define clonal selection and draw a flowchart showing how it applies to the selection of lymphocytes specific for a certain antigen.
  5. Explain why the O (Rh-) blood type is known as the universal donor and and AB (Rh+) blood type is known as the universal recipient and describe the risk associated with an Rh- mother carrying an Rh+ fetus.
  6. Severely burned patients must receive numerous skin grafts. Why is using an autograft (skin from the same person’s body) more advisable than using a skin graft from another donor?
  7. Your grade-school age sister wonders what allergies are and what causes them. Explain this concept to her simply but completely.

Differentiate autoimmune diseases from immunodeficiency diseases. Give examples of each.

Other resources:

  1. Cell-mediated immunity (swf)
  2. Humoral immunity (swf)
  3. Antibody action (wmv)

Osmoregulation and excretion:

  1. Differentiate between osmoconformers and osmoregulators.
  2. What osmoregulatory adaptations do marine and freshwater fishes employ to enable them to survive in their habitats?
  3. Where do N-wastes come from?
  4. What are the 3 major types of N-wastes? Rank them in terms of toxicity, amount of water needed for excretion, and energy needed for synthesis. What kind of animal would excrete a given type of N-waste? Why?
  5. What are the osmoregulatory structures of the following animals: cnidarians, echinoderms, freshwater protists and sponges?
  6. Describe the 4 major process associated with excretory systems?
  7. What are the excretory systems of the following animals:  flatworms, roundworms, annelids, molluscs, crustaceans, insects, fishes and other vertebrates?
  8. Trace the flow of N-wastes in the human excretory system from its origin in the liver to its exit from the body as urine (name all the blood vessels and structures associated with the nephron).
  9. Describe the processes that occur in the glomerulus, proximal tubule, loop of Henle, distal tubule, and collecting duct. What is the importance of the difference in permeability to water and solutes of the cells in the walls of the Loop of Henle and collecting duct?
  10. ADH and RAAS both act on the nephrons, what is the difference between them?

Thermoregulation

  1. What are the four processes of heat exchange?
  2. What is the main difference between ecto and endotherms?
  3. Describe the effect of vasodilation, vasoconstriction, and countercurrent heat exchange on an animal’s temperature.
  4. Describe the effect of shivering and nonshivering thermogenesis on an endotherm.
  5. What is torpor? What are the three kinds of torpor?
  6. What is the thermostat of humans and other terrestrial mammals and how does it work?

Musculoskeletal system (Not included in the LT but part of the periodic exam.)

  1. What is the simplest organism with muscle fibers?
  2. Describe the three types of vertebrate muscle tissues.
  3. Define the following: tendon, origin, insertion, fascia, antagonistic pairs.
  4. Arrange the following terms from smallest to largest: fascicle, thin filament, sarcomere, myofibril, whole skeletal muscle, and muscle fiber.
  5. Describe the roles of the following in muscle contraction: ATP, acetylcholine, nerve impulse, calcium ions, troponin, tropomyosin, actin, myosin, sarcoplasmic reticulum, and sarcolemma.
  6. What is the all-or-none response of muscle fibers?
  7. Differentiate a twitch from tetanus.
  8. Differentiate a slow twitch from a fast twitch fiber; dark meat from white meat.

[Bio3] Computer Aided Activity for Thursday, Nov 11

Pair Seatwork: The Search for the Genetic Material Computer-Aided Activity – Visit http://www.dnai.org/timeline/ and explore the various important scientists and fill in the blanks with their contributions to the discovery of DNA as the genetic material. You may also copy this file onto an email message and send it to me at toledo98@yahoo.com.

 

1869 – Friedrich Miescher worked on (1)__________________ he obtained from bandages at the local hospital. Lysis and alkalinization of these cells produced an acidic substance with high phosphorus content from the nuclei of all the cells studied. He called this substance (2)__________________, and thought that its purpose was for (3)_____________

____________________________________.

 

1904 – Thomas Hunt Morgan established the chromosomal theory of inheritance using Drosophila melanogaster or  (4)__________________. These organisms were known to be prolific breeders, producing hundreds of offspring and a new generation every two weeks. They also had four pairs of chromosomes: 3 pairs of autosomes and 1 pair of sex chromosomes. After many breeding experiments, he discovered a mutant male which had  (5)__________________ instead of the wild-type (or usual) red colored eyes. Upon performing many more experiments, he discovered that this trait is carried in the  (6) __________________ – chromosome, leading him to the discovery of sex-linked genes.

 

1928 – Frederick Griffith studied Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria that cause pneumonia in mammals. He had two strains the pathogenic (7)__________________ strain which had capsules to protect themselves from the mouse’s immune system and the harmless (8)__________________ strain or mutant bacteria with no capsules. Summarize the experiment below:

TREATMENT RESULTS
Mice injected with living S cells (9)

 

Mice injected with living R cells (10)

 

Mice injected with heat-killed S cells (11)

 

Mice injected with heat-killed S cells mixed with live R cells (12)

(13)

 

CONCLUSION (14)

 

 

1944 – Oswald Avery, Maclyn McCarty, and Colin MacLeod set to work discovering the identity of Griffith’s transforming substance. They purified various chemicals from heat-killed S cells, combined these with R cells, and checked for transformation. Summarize the experiment below:

SUBSTANCES TESTED

(Lysate from S-cells)

RESULTS
Sugar coat + Protein + DNA + RNA (15)
Protein + DNA + RNA (16)
RNA (17)
DNA (18)
CONCLUSION (19)

 

 

1949 – Erwin Chargaff already knew that DNA was a polymer of nucleotides consisting of a combination of four nitrogenous bases (A, T, G, C), deoxyribose sugar, and a phosphate group. He analyzed the composition of the bases in the DNA of of various species and compared them with each other. He found that DNA composition varies between species and that (20)_________________________________________________________________________________. These are now known as Chargaff’s rules.

 

1951 – Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins worked on (21)____________________________________ that can provide information about the shapes and structures of molecules. When a stream of rays is directed at a crystallized substance, some of them are diffracted or scattered. These can also interfere with each other producing spots of different intensities that can be recorded on film producing a unique signature for that structure. Working on data from a particular DNA fiber, she was able to (22)______________________________________________________________.

 

1952 – Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase studied viruses that attack bacteria called (23)__________________. The two components that make up these viruses are (24)__________________ and (25)__________________.  The question they wanted answered was which of these two biomolecules are responsible for infecting cells and reprogramming them to produce viruses. They distinguished between the two by (26)_________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________________________. They then waited long enough for these to be assimilated into the phages’ biomolecules and spun them in Waring blenders and centrifuged them. Summarize the experiment below:

TREATMENT RESULTS
Tube with 35S label (27)
Tube with 32P label (28)
CONCLUSION (29)

 

 

 

1953 – James Watson and Francis Crick built on the work of previous researchers. For instance, Phoebus Levene found that (30)____________________________________, but Oswald Avery’s findings showed that (31)_________________

____________________________________. Chargaff’s rules for DNA composition can be summarized simply as %A = (32)_____ and %G = (33)_________. Linus Pauling discovered that similar to many proteins, DNA had a (34)___________________ structure.Rosalind Franklin’s X-ray photos further showed the following measurements: (35)______________________. From these, Watson and Crick deduced that the structure of DNA had to be a (36)__________________ helix. When playing around with paper models of the bases, they decided that the only possible pairing combinations would be (37)__________________ and (38)__________________. The two helices run (39)__________________ to each other because of certain bond angles and base pair proximity. The conclusion to their groundbreaking paper stated that (40)______________ ____________________________________. After this, Francis Crick proposed the Central Dogma which states that (41)________________________________________________________________________________.

 

1957 – Matthew Meselson and Franklin Stahl hypothesized that a new DNA strand is made from copying the old. This type of replication is described as being (42)__________________. They used the organism (43)__________________ and the isotope (44)__________________. This isotope is used by the organisms in creating (45)__________________. They then transferred the organisms to fresh media and used normal nitrogen. They took samples of the organisms every time their populations doubled and compared these samples with organisms grown using normal nitrogen. They isolated DNA and centrifuged it. Summarize the results of the experiment below:

TREATMENT CONDITIONS OF GROWTH OF THE BACTERIA RESULTS UPON CENTRIFUGATION AND INTERPRETATIONS
Tube 1 (46) (47)

 

Tube 2 (48) (49)

 

Tube 3 (50) (51)

 

Tube 4 (52) (53)

 

Conclusion (54)