[Bio2] Guide questions for the Looong Test and Perio

You can answer this on a sheet of paper or email me your answers. One correct/complete answer is worth 0.5 recitation points.

Immunity (no need to answer this if you did the groupwork on this already)

  1. Draw a flowchart illustrating the events that occur during an inflammatory response.
  2. Choose any two white blood cells and one type of antibody and sketch a character card for each of them (ala Pokemon cards or M:tG cards) describing their special abilities and attack/defense specialties.
  3. Create Venn diagrams comparing a) B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes, b) the characteristics of Class I and Class II MHC molecules, c) humoral and cell-mediated immune responses; d) the primary and secondary immune responses; and e) active and passive immunity.
  4. Define clonal selection and draw a flowchart showing how it applies to the selection of lymphocytes specific for a certain antigen.
  5. Explain why the O (Rh-) blood type is known as the universal donor and and AB (Rh+) blood type is known as the universal recipient and describe the risk associated with an Rh- mother carrying an Rh+ fetus.
  6. Severely burned patients must receive numerous skin grafts. Why is using an autograft (skin from the same person’s body) more advisable than using a skin graft from another donor?
  7. Your grade-school age sister wonders what allergies are and what causes them. Explain this concept to her simply but completely.

Differentiate autoimmune diseases from immunodeficiency diseases. Give examples of each.

Other resources:

  1. Cell-mediated immunity (swf)
  2. Humoral immunity (swf)
  3. Antibody action (wmv)

Osmoregulation and excretion:

  1. Differentiate between osmoconformers and osmoregulators.
  2. What osmoregulatory adaptations do marine and freshwater fishes employ to enable them to survive in their habitats?
  3. Where do N-wastes come from?
  4. What are the 3 major types of N-wastes? Rank them in terms of toxicity, amount of water needed for excretion, and energy needed for synthesis. What kind of animal would excrete a given type of N-waste? Why?
  5. What are the osmoregulatory structures of the following animals: cnidarians, echinoderms, freshwater protists and sponges?
  6. Describe the 4 major process associated with excretory systems?
  7. What are the excretory systems of the following animals:  flatworms, roundworms, annelids, molluscs, crustaceans, insects, fishes and other vertebrates?
  8. Trace the flow of N-wastes in the human excretory system from its origin in the liver to its exit from the body as urine (name all the blood vessels and structures associated with the nephron).
  9. Describe the processes that occur in the glomerulus, proximal tubule, loop of Henle, distal tubule, and collecting duct. What is the importance of the difference in permeability to water and solutes of the cells in the walls of the Loop of Henle and collecting duct?
  10. ADH and RAAS both act on the nephrons, what is the difference between them?

Thermoregulation

  1. What are the four processes of heat exchange?
  2. What is the main difference between ecto and endotherms?
  3. Describe the effect of vasodilation, vasoconstriction, and countercurrent heat exchange on an animal’s temperature.
  4. Describe the effect of shivering and nonshivering thermogenesis on an endotherm.
  5. What is torpor? What are the three kinds of torpor?
  6. What is the thermostat of humans and other terrestrial mammals and how does it work?

Musculoskeletal system (Not included in the LT but part of the periodic exam.)

  1. What is the simplest organism with muscle fibers?
  2. Describe the three types of vertebrate muscle tissues.
  3. Define the following: tendon, origin, insertion, fascia, antagonistic pairs.
  4. Arrange the following terms from smallest to largest: fascicle, thin filament, sarcomere, myofibril, whole skeletal muscle, and muscle fiber.
  5. Describe the roles of the following in muscle contraction: ATP, acetylcholine, nerve impulse, calcium ions, troponin, tropomyosin, actin, myosin, sarcoplasmic reticulum, and sarcolemma.
  6. What is the all-or-none response of muscle fibers?
  7. Differentiate a twitch from tetanus.
  8. Differentiate a slow twitch from a fast twitch fiber; dark meat from white meat.
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