Gluon Guide Questions for the Second Long Test
DNA Replication and Repair
1. Summarize the central dogma in a diagram.
2. Define antiparallel and semiconservative following terms and relate it to the structure of DNA.
3. Use the following terms associated with replication and create a flowchart showing the different stages: replication bubble and replication fork, helicase, single-strand binding proteins, RNA primer, primase, leading strand, lagging strand, DNA polymerase III, DNA polymerase I, DNA ligase, Okazaki fragments, and 5’à 3’.
4. Differentiate between mismatch and excision repair.
5. What are telomeres and what role do they play in protecting the integrity of the lagging strand of the DNA? (Also take a look at this article: http://www.engadget.com/2010/11/29/harvard-scientists-rejuvenate-elderly-mice-laugh-maniacally/)
Transcription and Translation
1. Use the following terms associated with transcription and create a flowchart showing the different stages: promoter, transcription unit, terminator, template strand of DNA, transcription factors, TATA box, RNA polymerase II, transcription initiation complex, 3’ end, polyadenylation signal sequence, pre-mRNA.
2. What happens during RNA processing and what purpose does it serve?
3. Use the following terms associated with translation and create a flowchart showing the different stages: mRNA, codons, initiator tRNA, tRNA, anticodons, amino acids, rRNA, ribosomes, aminoacyl tRNA synthetase, large ribosome subunit, small ribosome subunit, E site, P site, A site, mRNA binding site, AUG, peptide bond, translocation, polypeptide, STOP codons, and release factor.
4. What is the wobble phenomenon and what purpose could it serve?