[Bio2] Required viewing for YMSAT week

If you have a fast internet connection, you can watch the videos here. A transcript is available here.

REPRODUCTION – LIFE’S GREATEST MIRACLE (2001)

  • Guide Questions to answer as you view “Life’s Greatest Miracle” (also available at the photocopier).
  • Please submit the answers to this on 1 whole sheet of pad paper by Friday, Feb 4 (Individual work).

Chapter 1. Passing On Your DNA

1. Why is sexual reproduction more advantageous than cloning?

Chapter 2. The Egg’s Journey

2. Describe the path the egg takes after being released from the ovary.

3. The video states that an egg will survive only a few hours if not fertilized. More recent information suggests that an egg will survive at least 24 hours and perhaps as long as 48 hours if not fertilized. How does that fact influence the most fertile time when couples are attempting to avoid pregnancy using the rhythm method?

Chapter 3. The Sperm’s Journey

4. What kind of obstacles will a sperm encounter once it enters the female?

5. Where in the female reproductive tract does fertilization of the egg occur?

Chapter 4. The First Two Weeks

6. Why would more than 50% of all fertilized eggs not survive? What kind of problems could a fertilized egg encounter?

7. How do identical twins form?

8. How does the blastocyst prevent the mother’s immune system from destroying the developing embryo?

Chapter 5. The Embryo Takes Shape

9. Describe the three cell layers that develop and include what parts of the body those cell layers will become.

10. How are genes turned on?

Chapter 6. Messages in the Genes

11. Where is the SRY gene found? What does it do? When does it function?

12. How do fingers (and toes) become separated from each other in the developing fetus?

Chapter 7. Feeding the Growing Fetus

13. What is a placenta? What is the function of its villi?

14. Do maternal and fetal blood mix?

Chapter 8. The Third Trimester

15. Why is human childbirth so much more dangerous than the births of other animals?

credits to the following sites:

http://www.nvcc.edu/home/mwise/ELI/ELIAssignments/AssignmentsforWeeks11and12.html andhttp://www.biologycorner.com/worksheets/miracle.html

[Bio3] Gluon Pair SW for 13 Jan

Gluon

Pair SW on RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY – an online copy with clickable links is available at https://bayo2pisay.wordpress.com . Answer on intermediate pad paper.

Define the following terms using any reputable website:

1.       recombinant DNA

2.       cloned DNA

3.       biotechnology

4.       genetic engineering

Basic DNA technology techniques – Access the given sites and answer the questions that follow.

1.       Restriction enzymes – http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/olc/dl/120078/bio37.swf.

a) What are restriction enzymes/endonucleases?

b) Give an example and the sequence it identifies.

c) Give an application of these tools in genetic engineering.

2.       DNA recombination and gene cloning http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/animations/content/plasmidcloning.html.

a)       What are plasmids?

b)       Draw a flowchart describing how foreign DNA is inserted into bacterial plasmids and how a whole colony of identical daughter cells can result. Be sure to include the terms vector, restriction enzyme, foreign DNA, ligase, sticky ends, daughter cell, colony, and clone.

c)       In the example given, how do researchers ensure that only the host cell with the DNA sequence of interest will be cloned?

3.       Complementary DNA – http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/olcweb/cgi/pluginpop.cgi?it=swf::535::535::/sites/dl/free/0072437316/120078/bio_h.swf::cDNA

a)       Why can’t eukaryotic DNA be cloned directy into prokaryotic cells to make useful proteins?

b)       How does reverse transcriptase and the creation of cDNA solve problem 3a?

4.       DNA amplification – http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/animations/content/pcr.html or http://www.dnalc.org/resources/animations/pcr.html

a)       What is PCR?

b)       Draw a flowchart describing how a cycle of PCR works. Be sure to include the following terms: target DNA, primers, nucleotides, Taq polymerase, denature, anneal, polymerize/extend.

c)       After 25 cycles (which takes around 2 hours), how many copies of the target DNA are made?

5.       Gel electrophoresis – http://www.dnalc.org/resources/animations/gelelectrophoresis.html

a)       What is gel electrophoresis used for?

b)       How is DNA separated in gel electrophoresis? Include the charge of DNA and the structure of the gel and the size of the fragments in your answer.

6.       DNA sequencing – http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/Education-resources/Teaching-and-education/Animations/DNA/WTDV026689.htm

a)       What method is of DNA sequencing is shown in this animation?

b)       Draw a flowchart describing how a fragment of DNA is sequenced using this method.