- What is the difference between a hydrostatic, exo-, and endoskeleton?
- What is the difference between the axial and appendicular skeleton? Give examples of bones that belong to each.
- What are joints? Give examples of each kind.
- What are the three types of bone cells and what are the functions of each?
- Contrast compact and spongy bone.
- What are the main functions of the nervous system?
- Describe the roles of the two types of cells that make up the nervous system.
- Name the parts and describe the functions of a neuron.
- Trace the pathway of a simple reflex action such as the knee-jerk reflex.
- Describe the events that occur during nerve impulse transmission.
- What is saltatory conduction and why is it important?
- How do nerve cells communicate with each other?
- Describe the nervous system plans and features across taxa and relate this to the animal’s symmetry and lifestyle.
- Describe the trends in the development of the vertebrate brain.
- List the components of the central nervous system and describe their functions.
- List the components of the peripheral nervous system and describe their functions.
- Compare the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system in terms of function.
- Enumerate the parts of the vertebrate brain and describe their functions.
- Differentiate between sensation and perception.
- Describe the five kinds of sensory receptors and give examples of each.
- Differentiate interoreceptors from exteroreceptors and give examples of each.
- What are tropisms? Give examples of these.
- Describe the roles of abscisic acid, auxin, cytokinin, ethylene, and gibberellin in regulating plant growth.
- Describe how the Darwin and Went experiments led to the discovery of auxin as the major factor behind phototropism.
- What are hormones?
- Relate the function of the endocrine system with that of the nervous system.
- Differentiate between (+) and (-) feedback. Why are feedback mechanisms important in regulating hormone production?
- Why can hormones only affect specific cells and not others?
- Describe the role of hormones in invertebrates.
- Differentiate between the mode of action of a peptide/protein hormone vs that of a steroid/thyroid hormone.
- Why are signal transduction pathways important?
- Describe the role of the hypothalamus in the endocrine system.
- Describe the sources and functions of the hormones found in p.899 of your \m/ bio book.
- Describe the role of negative feedback in the regulation of thyroid hormones and maintenance of blood glucose levels.
- Describe the roles of the hormones (GnRH, LH, FSH, estrogen, progesterone) secreted by the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary gland, and ovary in regulating the female reproductive cycle.
- Compare asexual and sexual reproduction and discuss advantages and disadvantages of each.
- Describe the different mechanisms of asexual reproduction (e.g. fission, budding, gemmules, fragmentation).
- Relate the choice of reproductive strategy with the availability of mates and resources, environment, and the lifestyle of the organism.
- Compare internal and external fertilization and discuss advantages and disadvantages of each.
- Enumerate the parts and describe the functions of the male and female reproductive systems.
- Compare the structure of the sperm cell with that of the egg cell.
- Describe the events that occur during fertilization.