[Bio2] Guide questions for the 4th quarter

Skeletal System

  1. What is the difference between a hydrostatic, exo-, and endoskeleton?
  2. What is the difference between the axial and appendicular skeleton? Give examples of bones that belong to each.
  3. What are joints? Give examples of each kind.
  4. What are the three types of bone cells and what are the functions of each?
  5. Contrast compact and spongy bone.

Nervous System

  1. What are the main functions of the nervous system?
  2. Describe the roles of the two types of cells that make up the nervous system.
  3. Name the parts and describe the functions of a neuron.
  4. Trace the pathway of a simple reflex action such as the knee-jerk reflex.
  5. Describe the events that occur during nerve impulse transmission.
  6. What is saltatory conduction and why is it important?
  7. How do nerve cells communicate with each other?
  8. Describe the nervous system plans and features across taxa and relate this to the animal’s symmetry and lifestyle.
  9. Describe the trends in the development of the vertebrate brain.
  10. List the components of the central nervous system and describe their functions.
  11. List the components of the peripheral nervous system and describe their functions.
  12. Compare the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system in terms of function.
  13. Enumerate the parts of the vertebrate brain and describe their functions.

Sensory Mechanisms

  1. Differentiate between sensation and perception.
  2. Describe the five kinds of sensory receptors and give examples of each.
  3. Differentiate interoreceptors from exteroreceptors and give examples of each.

Plant Hormones

  1. What are tropisms? Give examples of these.
  2. Describe the roles of abscisic acid, auxin, cytokinin, ethylene, and gibberellin in regulating plant growth.
  3. Describe how the Darwin and Went experiments led to the discovery of auxin as the major factor behind phototropism.

Endocrine System

  1. What are hormones?
  2. Relate the function of the endocrine system with that of the nervous system.
  3. Differentiate between (+) and (-) feedback. Why are feedback mechanisms important in regulating hormone production?
  4. Why can hormones only affect specific cells and not others?
  5. Describe the role of hormones in invertebrates.
  6. Differentiate between the mode of action of a peptide/protein hormone vs that of a steroid/thyroid hormone.
  7. Why are signal transduction pathways important?
  8. Describe the role of the hypothalamus in the endocrine system.
  9. Describe the sources and functions of the hormones found in p.899 of your \m/ bio book.
  10. Describe the role of negative feedback in the regulation of thyroid hormones and maintenance of blood glucose levels.
  11. Describe the roles of the hormones (GnRH, LH, FSH, estrogen, progesterone) secreted by the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary gland, and ovary in regulating the female reproductive cycle.

Reproductive System

  1. Compare asexual and sexual reproduction and discuss advantages and disadvantages of each.
  2. Describe the different mechanisms of asexual reproduction (e.g. fission, budding, gemmules, fragmentation).
  3. Relate the choice of reproductive strategy with the availability of mates and resources, environment, and the lifestyle of the organism.
  4. Compare internal and external fertilization and discuss advantages and disadvantages of each.
  5. Enumerate the parts and describe the functions of the male and female reproductive systems.
  6. Compare the structure of the sperm cell with that of the egg cell.
  7. Describe the events that occur during fertilization.



[Bio3] Long Test on DNA Technology and Applications

Please check the downloads section of the site for the relevant files. You may also find it helpful to use the guide questions to focus on the important points of each report. The exam is half objective and half application/problem-solving so be sure to know the processes, applications, and issues involved.

Here is the game we were supposed to play yesterday. Oh, and if you have any notes, please bring them to class tomorrow. 😉

[Bio 2] Special project

Special Project for Bio 2 Students – Questions/clarifications will be addressed in class next week.

Special Project: Quantifying the Amount of Glucose in a Potato (aka The Potato Project!)


  1. Develop scientific investigative abilities of students given a single problem.
  2. Harness cooperation and leadership skills among the members of the group.
  3. Foster the ability to apply modifications if protocols do not work as expected.


  • A potato
  • Apparatus and materials from the protocol to be used by the group


  1. The class will be divided into five groups with six members each. The groups can consist of the members of the previous Mythbusters grouping (or not).
  2. The group will research on a protocol on how to quantify the amount of glucose found in a single potato. The protocol will be passed to their bio teacher a week after this activity was received. The protocol should include all the materials needed, duration of the experiment and the steps of the protocol.  References should be written in APA format.
  3. The group should inform the teacher of the time they will conduct their experiment to help in their preparation and experimentation. This is an independent study; experiments should be done during free time.
  4. The experiment proper should be documented and will be included in the final output, a power point presentation that should be able to explain the various steps that were undertaken to solve the problem. The presentation should follow the guidelines of a proper presentation.
  5. Presentation should include the following:

I.            Title

II.            Introduction

III.            Methods

IV.            Results

V.            Discussion (includes the possible errors done in the protocol, comparison of the result to the theoretical value of the variable being tested, limitation of protocol used, practicality/economy of the protocol used)

VI.            References

  1. Deadline of submission of presentation is on March 7, 2011. This includes a copy of the slip of materials from the lab room that group borrowed as a proof that the experiment was done by the group.
  2. This activity is worth 50 pts. Bonus points will be given for those who will pass in advance for both the protocol and presentation.

Scoring guide:

10 pts protocol

2 pts for title, 5 pts clear step by step procedure, 1 pt organization, 2 pts reference

40 pts presentation

5 pts orderliness of presentation

5 pts visuals

5 pts references

15 pts content and organization of report


[Bio2] Some sense-ible links

  1. Jellyfish eyes solve optical mystery – interesting article that involves the discovery of jellyfish genes that cause the growth of extra eyes in fruit flies
  2. Bug eyes – super close-up photos 🙂 – as a clarification to insect vision: each ommatidium can detect a picture element (pixel) and six ommatidia are arranged into a lens and organisms can have anything from a handful to a thousand lenses. Each lens has a slightly different view of the environment.