[Bio2] Guide questions for the 4th quarter

Skeletal System

  1. What is the difference between a hydrostatic, exo-, and endoskeleton?
  2. What is the difference between the axial and appendicular skeleton? Give examples of bones that belong to each.
  3. What are joints? Give examples of each kind.
  4. What are the three types of bone cells and what are the functions of each?
  5. Contrast compact and spongy bone.

Nervous System

  1. What are the main functions of the nervous system?
  2. Describe the roles of the two types of cells that make up the nervous system.
  3. Name the parts and describe the functions of a neuron.
  4. Trace the pathway of a simple reflex action such as the knee-jerk reflex.
  5. Describe the events that occur during nerve impulse transmission.
  6. What is saltatory conduction and why is it important?
  7. How do nerve cells communicate with each other?
  8. Describe the nervous system plans and features across taxa and relate this to the animal’s symmetry and lifestyle.
  9. Describe the trends in the development of the vertebrate brain.
  10. List the components of the central nervous system and describe their functions.
  11. List the components of the peripheral nervous system and describe their functions.
  12. Compare the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system in terms of function.
  13. Enumerate the parts of the vertebrate brain and describe their functions.

Sensory Mechanisms

  1. Differentiate between sensation and perception.
  2. Describe the five kinds of sensory receptors and give examples of each.
  3. Differentiate interoreceptors from exteroreceptors and give examples of each.

Plant Hormones

  1. What are tropisms? Give examples of these.
  2. Describe the roles of abscisic acid, auxin, cytokinin, ethylene, and gibberellin in regulating plant growth.
  3. Describe how the Darwin and Went experiments led to the discovery of auxin as the major factor behind phototropism.

Endocrine System

  1. What are hormones?
  2. Relate the function of the endocrine system with that of the nervous system.
  3. Differentiate between (+) and (-) feedback. Why are feedback mechanisms important in regulating hormone production?
  4. Why can hormones only affect specific cells and not others?
  5. Describe the role of hormones in invertebrates.
  6. Differentiate between the mode of action of a peptide/protein hormone vs that of a steroid/thyroid hormone.
  7. Why are signal transduction pathways important?
  8. Describe the role of the hypothalamus in the endocrine system.
  9. Describe the sources and functions of the hormones found in p.899 of your \m/ bio book.
  10. Describe the role of negative feedback in the regulation of thyroid hormones and maintenance of blood glucose levels.
  11. Describe the roles of the hormones (GnRH, LH, FSH, estrogen, progesterone) secreted by the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary gland, and ovary in regulating the female reproductive cycle.

Reproductive System

  1. Compare asexual and sexual reproduction and discuss advantages and disadvantages of each.
  2. Describe the different mechanisms of asexual reproduction (e.g. fission, budding, gemmules, fragmentation).
  3. Relate the choice of reproductive strategy with the availability of mates and resources, environment, and the lifestyle of the organism.
  4. Compare internal and external fertilization and discuss advantages and disadvantages of each.
  5. Enumerate the parts and describe the functions of the male and female reproductive systems.
  6. Compare the structure of the sperm cell with that of the egg cell.
  7. Describe the events that occur during fertilization.

 

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