Guide Questions for LT/Perio Review/Bonus Recitation

You can answer this on a sheet of paper or email me your answers. One correct/complete answer is worth 0.5 recitation points. For this quarter, the denominator for recitation points is 18.

Vertebrate Circulation

  1. Describe the plans of the circulatory systems of fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals and explain why these are suited to these organisms.
  2. Describe what happens to the chambers and valves of the heart during each phase of the cardiac cycle.
  3. Trace the flow of electrical stimulation in the heart.
  4. What causes the lub dub sound of heartbeat?
  5. Define the following: cardiac output, pulse, and blood pressure.
  6. compare the structures of arteries, capillaries, and veins and relate these with their functions.
  7. Why does blood slow down in capillary beds?
  8. What is the function of precapillary sphincters?
  9. Compare the osmotic and hydrostatic pressures at both ends of a capillary.
  10. How do veins transport blood back to the heart?
  11. How does a clot form?
  12. What are the major functions of the lymphatic system?

Additional Questions for Respiration (other guide questions are in the group discussion guide)

  1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of air/water as a respiratory medium?
  2. Define tidal volume, vital capacity, and residual volume.
  3. How does a rise in carbon dioxide levels in the bloodstream related to pH changes and oxygen levels?
  4. Describe cooperativity and affinity as they apply to a hemoglobin molecule.
  5. When does a Bohr shift occur?
  6. Describe how carbon dioxide is transported by the bloodstream.
  7. What is the difference between fetal and adult hemoglobin. Why?


  1. Draw a flowchart illustrating the events that occur during an inflammatory response.
  2. Choose any two white blood cells and one type of antibody and sketch a character card for each of them (ala Pokemon cards or M:tG cards) describing their special abilities and attack/defense specialties.
  3. Create Venn diagrams comparing a) B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes, b) the characteristics of Class I and Class II MHC molecules, c) humoral and cell-mediated immune responses; d) the primary and secondary immune responses; and e) active and passive immunity.
  4. Define clonal selection and draw a flowchart showing how it applies to the selection of lymphocytes specific for a certain antigen.
  5. Explain why the O (Rh-) blood type is known as the universal donor and and AB (Rh+) blood type is known as the universal recipient and describe the risk associated with an Rh- mother carrying an Rh+ fetus.
  6. Severely burned patients must receive numerous skin grafts. Why is using an autograft (skin from the same person’s body) more advisable than using a skin graft from another donor?
  7. Your grade-school age sister wonders what allergies are and what causes them. Explain this concept to her simply but completely.
  8. Differentiate autoimmune diseases from immunodeficiency diseases. Give examples of each.
You can also play one more game and send me information on the patients, their bloodtypes, and compatible donor blood types. You get +3 points for this.

Other resources:

  1. Inflammatory response
  2. Cell-mediated immunity (swf)
  3. Humoral immunity (swf)
  4. Antibody action

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