You can answer this on a sheet of paper or email me your answers. One correct/complete answer is worth 0.5 recitation points. For this quarter, the denominator for recitation points is 18.
- Describe the plans of the circulatory systems of fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals and explain why these are suited to these organisms.
- Describe what happens to the chambers and valves of the heart during each phase of the cardiac cycle.
- Trace the flow of electrical stimulation in the heart.
- What causes the lub dub sound of heartbeat?
- Define the following: cardiac output, pulse, and blood pressure.
- compare the structures of arteries, capillaries, and veins and relate these with their functions.
- Why does blood slow down in capillary beds?
- What is the function of precapillary sphincters?
- Compare the osmotic and hydrostatic pressures at both ends of a capillary.
- How do veins transport blood back to the heart?
- How does a clot form?
- What are the major functions of the lymphatic system?
Additional Questions for Respiration (other guide questions are in the group discussion guide)
- What are the advantages and disadvantages of air/water as a respiratory medium?
- Define tidal volume, vital capacity, and residual volume.
- How does a rise in carbon dioxide levels in the bloodstream related to pH changes and oxygen levels?
- Describe cooperativity and affinity as they apply to a hemoglobin molecule.
- When does a Bohr shift occur?
- Describe how carbon dioxide is transported by the bloodstream.
- What is the difference between fetal and adult hemoglobin. Why?
- Draw a flowchart illustrating the events that occur during an inflammatory response.
- Choose any two white blood cells and one type of antibody and sketch a character card for each of them (ala Pokemon cards or M:tG cards) describing their special abilities and attack/defense specialties.
- Create Venn diagrams comparing a) B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes, b) the characteristics of Class I and Class II MHC molecules, c) humoral and cell-mediated immune responses; d) the primary and secondary immune responses; and e) active and passive immunity.
- Define clonal selection and draw a flowchart showing how it applies to the selection of lymphocytes specific for a certain antigen.
- Explain why the O (Rh-) blood type is known as the universal donor and and AB (Rh+) blood type is known as the universal recipient and describe the risk associated with an Rh- mother carrying an Rh+ fetus.
- Severely burned patients must receive numerous skin grafts. Why is using an autograft (skin from the same person’s body) more advisable than using a skin graft from another donor?
- Your grade-school age sister wonders what allergies are and what causes them. Explain this concept to her simply but completely.
- Differentiate autoimmune diseases from immunodeficiency diseases. Give examples of each.