Guide questions to help you focus your review:
Using your notes and the presentations and other materials given in class, attempt to answer these questions in your mind. You may also write down your answers to these questions on scratch paper or in your notebooks. Most of these have been given during the LT1 and LT2.
Characteristics of Life, Levels of Organization, Unifying Themes, Branches of Biology
- Enumerate the characteristics of living things and give examples for each.
- Differentiate the levels of organization and give examples for each.
- Define emergent property and identify emergent properties present at each level of organization.
- Identify the theme present in an article about Biology (articles from http://www.sciencedaily.com/ and http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/ are good for practice).
- Name and describe at least one branch of biology for each level of organization.
Introduction to Ecology
- Enumerate and describe the important abiotic conditions in the six terrestrial and three aquatic biomes.
- Explain how organisms (at least one plant and one animal) living in these biomes have adapted to the abiotic conditions.
- Differentiate between primary and secondary succession and explain how these happen by using the terms pioneer species and climax community.
- Given a statement, identify the habitat and niche of an organism.
- Explain the competitive exclusion principle.
- Describe the three types of ecological pyramids and explain the information contained in each.
- Differentiate between food chains and food webs.
- Define or describe the five important characteristics of a population: geographic distribution, density, dispersion, growth rate, and age structure.
- Describe the following patterns of population dispersion and explain what may cause them: clumped, uniform, random.
- Explain how these three factors can affect population size: the number of births, the number of deaths, and the number of individuals that enter or leave a population.
- Differentiate between exponential and logistic growth in populations and explain what influences the type of growth pattern observed.
- Relate the terms biotic potential, environmental resistance, and carrying capacity to each other.
- Differentiate and give examples for density-dependent and density-independent factors that may limit population growth.
- Analyze age-structure diagrams and explain the information obtained.
- Describe the effects of human population growth and how different lifestyles can affect future populations.
- Know the What? Where? When? Who? Why? and How? of the problems of air pollution, deforestation, wildlife trade, introduced and invasive species, exploitation of marine resources, and climate change.
Darwin’s Bright Idea
- What observations did Darwin make about life in the different areas he visited while on the Voyage of the HMS Beagle?
- Explain the two major concepts behind the idea of evolution.
- How did the fields of economics, plant and animal breeding, and geology influence Darwin’s ideas on evolution?
- Explain how natural selection acts as a mechanism for evolution by using the concepts of overproduction, variation, competition, survival to reproduce, struggle for existence, and survival of the fittest.
- Why is a population the smallest unit that can evolve?
- Differentiate between Lamarckian and Darwinian evolution.
Evidence of Change
- How does evidence from the fossil record, comparative anatomy, comparative embryology, biochemistry, and biogeography support the idea of change over time?
- Discuss problems with the fossil record as the sole evidence of evolution.
- Differentiate between homologous vs analogous structures and convergent vs divergent evolution.
- What are vestigial structures and how do they support the ideas of Darwin?
- How are DNA, proteins, and physical characteristics related?
Modern Evolutionary Theory
- How did ideas and discoveries about Earth’s history, life’s history, mechanisms of evolution, development and genetics shape and support evolutionary thought?
- Describe the effect of genes on the evolution of a population.
- Explain how speciation occurs.
Miller and Urey’s Experiment on the Origin of Life
- What were the conditions on early Earth that Miller and Urey tried to simulate in their experiment?
- Describe the different components of the experiment and explain what they are for.
- What were the results of the experiment. Why are they significant?
- How do you write a proper scientific name?
- Read the laboratory safety rules as found in the lab safety contract.
- Read the procedures undergone when doing the first two lab experiments (ecology and the beaks of finches).