[Bio1] Guide Questions for the First Long Test

Using your notes and the presentations and other materials given in class, attempt to answer these questions in your mind. You may also write down your answers to these questions on scratch paper or in your notebooks. These will serve as your guide for the first long test and the first part of the Periodic Exam.

 The Cell as the Structural Basis of Life

  • What is the cell theory? Enumerate the statements that comprise it.
  • Who were the scientists that contributed to the formulation of the cell theory? Briefly describe their roles.
  • Differentiate between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
  • Differentiate between plant and animal cells.
  • Given a diagram of a bacterium, a plant, and an animal cell, identify the structures and describe their functions.
  • Briefly describe how a eukaryotic cell may have evolved from a prokaryotic one.

The Microscope as a Biological Tool

  • Differentiate between the major types of microscopes.
  • Given a diagram of a microscope, identify the parts and name the functions.
  • Describe the following properties of a microscope: magnifying power, resolving power, and contrast.
  • Trace the pathway of light through the microscope.
  • Describe how you would carry, use, and store a microscope.
  • Discuss how you would properly stain and make wet mounts of slide samples.
  • Solve problems involving theoretical magnification, estimation of the diameter of the field of view, and estimation of cell size.

The Biology of Disease

  • Define the term disease and describe possible causes.
  • What is the germ theory of disease and who were the scientists responsible for its formulation?
  • Give examples of pathogens and the diseases they cause.
  • Describe how pathogens cause disease.
  • What are Koch’s postulates? Enumerate.
  • Describe different modes of infection for different diseases.
  • Discuss how the human body defends against disease by using nonspecific and specific immune responses.


  • What is a virus?
  • How was the first virus discovered?
  • What are the parts that make up a virus and what are they for?
  • How are viruses classified according to genetic material, size, host specificity, shape, presence of envelope, and type of reproductive cycle?