Guide Questions for the Second Long Test (Bio1)

Multicellular Algae

  • How does alternation of generations occur in the life cycle of Ulva?

Intro to Kingdom Plantae and the Bryophytes

  • List the five characteristics of plants.
  • Why is the colonization of land by photosynthetic organisms a milestone in evolution?
  • Which algal group is the most probable ancestor of the first terrestrial plants? Justify.
  • What are the advantages of terrestrial life?
  • Describe how land plants deal with the following aspects of terrestrial life: water supply, exposure to sunlight, transport of water and nutrients, gas exchange, and reproduction.
  • List the general characteristics of bryophytes.
  • Name the groups under bryophytes and differentiate them from each other in terms of common names/appearance of the sporophyte and gametophyte/other distinguishing structures.
  • For the life cycle of a typical bryophyte:
    • What is the dominant stage?
    • Describe all the haploid and diploid structures; sporophyte and gametophyte structures: spore, protonema, male gametophyte, female gametophyte, antheridium, archegonium, sperm, egg, zygote, embryo, capsule, stalk, rhizoid, gemma cup/gemmae.
    • Describe when/where fertilization and meiosis occur and name their products.

Tracheophytes

  • List the general characteristics of tracheophytes.
  • Briefly describe the four groups of early vascular plants as well as the features they have in common.
  • For the life cycle of a typical fern:
    • What is the dominant stage?
    • Describe all the haploid and diploid structures; sporophyte and gametophyte structures: frond, rhizome, root, sporophyll, sorus, spore, prothallus, archegonium, antheridium, egg, sperm, zygote, fiddlehead.
    • Describe when/where fertilization and meiosis occur and name their products.
    • List the general characteristics of spermatophytes and relate these to their success in colonizing land.
    • Differentiate between gymnosperms and angiosperms in terms of structures present.
    • Name the parts of a seed and give their functions.
    • Name the four groups under gymnosperms and differentiate them from each other in terms of common names/appearance/structures.
    • For the life cycle of a typical conifer:
      • What is the dominant stage?
      • Describe all the haploid and diploid structures; sporophyte and gametophyte structures: ovulate cone, pollen cone, megasporangium, microsporangium, megaspore, pollen grains, female gametophyte, integument, egg, sperm, pollen tube, seed, seed coat, food reserves, embryo, mature sporophyte.
      • Describe when/where fertilization and meiosis occur and name their products.
      • How many megaspores are formed? How many survive?
      • How many sperm nuclei reach the female gametophyte? How many are actually involved in fertilization?
      • List the reproductive parts of the flower and give their functions. Which parts of the flower form the fruit and seeds?
      • Differentiate between monocots and dicots in terms of embryos, leaf vein patterns, arrangement of xylem and phloem in stems, roots, pollen, and flower parts.
      • For the life cycle of a typical angiosperm:
        • What is the dominant stage?
        • Describe all the haploid, diploid, and triploid structures; sporophyte and gametophyte structures: mature sporophyte, anther, microsporocyte, microspore, pollen grain, ovary, megasporocyte, megaspore, ovule, stigma, pollen tube, embryo sac, polar nuclei, egg cell, sperm nuclei, zygote, endosperm seed, embryo.
        • Describe when/where fertilization and meiosis occur and name their products.
        • How many megaspores are formed? How many survive?
        • How many sperm nuclei reach the female gametophyte? How many are actually involved in fertilization?
        • What is double fertilization and what are its products?

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