[Bio1] Guide Questions for the Second Long Test

Kingdom Animalia

  1. Given a phylogenetic tree, identify the different phyla represented at the end of each branch and the ancestors of Kingdom Animalia.
  2. Identify the different characteristics used to classify organisms according to their phyla (e.g. level of organization, type of symmetry, presence of a body cavity, type of body cavity, number of germ layers, fate of the blastopore, presence of segmentation, and presence of a notochord).
  3. Identify the following structures/processes in the development of an embryo: zygote, blastula, blastocoel, gastrula, blastopore, cleavage, gastrulation.
  4. State the fates of the germ layers and the blastopore in diploblasts/triploblasts and protostomates/deuterostomates.
  5. Identify the dorsal/ventral, oral/aboral. anterior/posterior parts of given organisms.
  6. State the etymology of each animal phylum and give a short description of each.
  7. Describe each animal phylum according to the following: how it feeds, how it respires, how it transports fluid and nutrients throughout its body, how it excretes metabolic wastes, how its nerves and muscles (if present) are arranged, how it moves, how it reproduces, and its ecological role.

Phylum Porifera

  • How does a sponge differ from the other animal phyla?


  • What are the two forms in the life cycle of the cnidarians and how do they differ?
  • Identify the functions of the different parts of the cnidarian.
  • Differentiate among the cnidarian groups and give examples of each.

Phylum Platyhelminthes

  • How do parasitic flatworms differ from free-living ones?
  • Differentiate among the flatworm groups and give examples of each (e.g. Cestoda – tapeworms like Taenia)

Phylum Nematoda

  • Describe the life cycle of parasitic roundworm like Ascaris.

Phylum Mollusca

  • Differentiate among the mollusc groups and give examples of each (e.g. Cephalopoda-Nautilus, Bivalvia-Tridacna (giant clam))

Phylum Annelida

  • Differentiate among the annelid groups and give examples of each (e.g. Oligochaeta-Lumbricus terrestris, Hirudinea-leeches)
  • Why do marine worms (Polychaeta) have parapodia and gills?

Phylum Arthropoda

  • Differentiate among the arthropod groups and give examples of each (e.g. Uniramia-millipedes, centipedes, insects)
  • Which adaptation most contributed to the evolutionary success of the insects?

Phylum Echinodermata

  • Describe the structure and function of the echinoderm’s water-vascular system.
  • Why are echinoderms considered the closest relatives of chordates?
  • Differentiate among the echinoderm groups and give examples of each (e.g. Echinoidea-sea urchins and sand dollars)

Phylum Chordata

  • Describe the following chordate structures and their fates: notochord, pharyngeal slits, and post-anal tail.
  • Differentiate among the chordate groups and give examples of each (e.g. Vertebrata-fish, amphibians, reptiles, mammals)
  • Differentiate among the different groups under Vertebrata and give examples of each