[Bio1] Guide Questions for the 2nd Quarter Periodic Exam

Perio Guide Questions (if you are able to answer these, then you will do well in the Periodic Exam)

Characteristics and Evolution of Eukaryotes
1. How are prokaryotes different from eukaryotes?
2. How did eukaryotes evolve from prokaryotic ancestors (endosymbiont theory)?

3. What are protists?
4. How would you differentiate between plant, animal, and fungus-like protists?

The Evolution of Multicellularity and the Volvocine Series
5. How did multicellular forms evolve from unicellular ones (Volvocine series)?
6. What are some trends in the evolution of multicellularity?
7. What are the advantages/disadvantages of multicellularity?

Plant and Animal Tissues
8. What are tissues?
9. Differentiate between plant and animal tissues based on structure/location/function.

Bioenergetics and Digestion
10. Define: metabolism, anabolism, and catabolism.
11. Enumerate the four processes that must be accomplished during digestion.
12. Describe the following digestive processes in organisms with: a) intracellular digestion only, b) extracellular digestion only, c) incomplete digestive systems, and d) complete digestive system. Name the types of animals associated with the given type of system.
13. Enumerate some observable trends in the evolution of digestive systems in vertebrates and in mammals.
14. Trace the pathway of food and the different enzymes it encounters in the human digestive tract.
15. Describe what happens to food in the small and large intestines.

Transport and Circulation
16. Describe the structure of the cell membrane. How does its structure allow it to become selectively permeable to different types of materials?
17. Describe the different processes of cellular transport in terms of energy required, substances involved, direction of flow of substances.
18. Define isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic solutions. What happens to an animal cell when immersed in this kind of medium? What happens to a plant cell?
19. Differentiate between phloem and xylem in terms of structure and function.
20. How are water and dissolved minerals transported into the roots? What role does the Casparian strip play in the transport of materials into the root xylem?
21. Describe the root pressure transpiration-cohesion-tension mechanism by defining the associated terms and explaining how they work together in allowing water to rise in the plant.
22. Describe the bulk or pressure flow mechanism by defining the associated terms and explaining it works to transport phloem sap from sources to sinks.

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