[Bio1] LT 1 Guide Questions

Transport in Lower Forms

Describe the following systems associated with transport in animals: a) diffusion, b) water-vascular system, c) open circulatory system, d) closed circulatory system. Give the advantages and the disadvantages of each and name the types of animals associated with the given type of transport system.

Vertebrate Circulation

  • Describe the plans of the circulatory systems of fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals and explain why these are suited to these organisms.
  • Describe what happens to the chambers and valves of the heart during each phase of the cardiac cycle.
  • Trace the flow of electrical stimulation in the heart.
  • What causes the lub dub sound of heartbeat?
  • Define the following: cardiac output, pulse, and blood pressure.
    compare the structures of arteries, capillaries, and veins and relate these with their functions.
  • Why does blood slow down in capillary beds?
  • What is the function of precapillary sphincters?
  • Compare the osmotic and hydrostatic pressures at both ends of a capillary.
  • How do veins transport blood back to the heart?
  • How does a clot form?
  • What are the major functions of the lymphatic system?