Transport and Circulation
- Describe the following systems associated with transport in animals: a) diffusion, b) water-vascular system, c) open circulatory system, d) closed circulatory system. Give the advantages and the disadvantages of each and name the types of animals associated with the given type of transport system.
- Describe the plans of the circulatory systems of fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals and explain why these are suited to these organisms.
- Describe what happens to the chambers and valves of the heart during each phase of the cardiac cycle.
- Trace the flow of electrical stimulation in the heart.
- What causes the lub dub sound of heartbeat?
- Define the following: cardiac output, pulse, and blood pressure.
- Compare the structures of arteries, capillaries, and veins and relate these with their functions.
- Why does blood slow down in capillary beds?
- What is the function of precapillary sphincters?
- Compare the osmotic and hydrostatic (blood) pressures at both ends of a capillary.
- How do veins transport blood back to the heart?
- How does a clot form?
- What are the major functions of the lymphatic system?
Immunity (with some output that could be part of your portfolio this quarter)
- Draw a flowchart illustrating the events that occur during an inflammatory response.
- Choose any two white blood cells and one type of antibody and sketch a character card for each of them (ala Pokemon cards or M:tG cards) describing their special abilities and attack/defense specialties.
- Create Venn diagrams comparing a) B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes, b) the characteristics of Class I and Class II MHC molecules, c) humoral and cell-mediated immune responses; d) the primary and secondary immune responses; and e) active and passive immunity.
- Define clonal selection and draw a flowchart showing how it applies to the selection of lymphocytes specific for a certain antigen.
- Explain why the O (Rh-) blood type is known as the universal donor and and AB (Rh+) blood type is known as the universal recipient and describe the risk associated with an Rh- mother carrying an Rh+ fetus.
Respiration and gas exchange
- Differentiate between aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration in terms of amount of energy generated and regions of the cell in which they occur.
- Differentiate between photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
- Give examples of animals that use the following structures for gas exchange: cell surface, moist skin only, gills, tracheal system/tracheae, and lungs.
- What are the advantages and disadvantages of air/water as a respiratory medium?
- Define ventilation and countercurrent exchange and explain how these mechanisms increase the amount of oxygen obtained by the gills of aquatic animals.