RESPIRATION AND GAS EXCHANGE
1. Trace the pathway of air in mammalian respiratory systems.
2. Differentiate among the breathing mechanisms of amphibians, reptiles and mammals, and birds (use the terms positive and negative pressure breathing).
3. Define tidal volume, vital capacity, and residual volume.
4. Name the two regions of the brain that regulate breathing and describe their specific functions.
5. How does a rise in carbon dioxide levels in the bloodstream related to pH changes and oxygen levels?
6. Describe cooperativity and affinity as they apply to a hemoglobin molecule.
7. When does a Bohr shift occur?
8. Describe how carbon dioxide is transported by the bloodstream.
9. What is the difference between fetal and adult hemoglobin. Why?
10. Describe three adaptations of deep-diving mammals to address their oxygen needs while underwater.
OSMOREGULATION AND EXCRETION
1. Differentiate between osmoconformers and osmoregulators.
2. What osmoregulatory adaptations do marine and freshwater fishes employ to enable them to survive in their habitats?
3. Where do N-wastes come from?
4. What are the 3 major types of N-wastes? Rank them in terms of toxicity, amount of water needed for excretion, and energy needed for synthesis. What kind of animal would excrete a given type of N-waste? Why?
5. What are the osmoregulatory structures of the following animals: cnidarians, echinoderms, freshwater protists and sponges?
6. Describe the 4 major process associated with excretory systems?
7. What are the excretory systems of the following animals: flatworms, roundworms, annelids, molluscs, crustaceans, insects, fishes and other vertebrates?
8. Trace the flow of N-wastes in the human excretory system from its origin in the liver to its exit from the body as urine (name all the blood vessels and structures associated with the nephron).
9. Describe the processes that occur in the glomerulus, proximal tubule, loop of Henle, distal tubule, and collecting duct.