RESPIRATION AND GAS EXCHANGE
1. Trace the pathway of air in mammalian respiratory systems.
2. Differentiate among the breathing mechanisms of amphibians, reptiles and mammals, and birds (use the terms positive and negative pressure breathing).
3. Define tidal volume, vital capacity, and residual volume.
4. Name the two regions of the brain that regulate breathing and describe their specific functions.
5. How does a rise in carbon dioxide levels in the bloodstream related to pH changes and oxygen levels?
6. Describe cooperativity and affinity as they apply to a hemoglobin molecule.
7. When does a Bohr shift occur?
8. Describe how carbon dioxide is transported by the bloodstream.
9. What is the difference between fetal and adult hemoglobin. Why?
10. Describe three adaptations of deep-diving mammals to address their oxygen needs while underwater.
OSMOREGULATION AND EXCRETION
1. Differentiate between osmoconformers and osmoregulators.
2. What osmoregulatory adaptations do marine and freshwater fishes employ to enable them to survive in their habitats?
3. Where do N-wastes come from?
4. What are the 3 major types of N-wastes? Rank them in terms of toxicity, amount of water needed for excretion, and energy needed for synthesis. What kind of animal would excrete a given type of N-waste? Why?
5. What are the osmoregulatory structures of the following animals: cnidarians, echinoderms, freshwater protists and sponges?
6. Describe the 4 major process associated with excretory systems.
7. What are the excretory systems of the following animals: flatworms, roundworms, annelids, molluscs, crustaceans, insects, fishes and other vertebrates?
8. Trace the flow of N-wastes in the human excretory system from its origin in the liver to its exit from the body as urine (name all the blood vessels and structures associated with the nephron).
9. Describe the processes that occur in the glomerulus, proximal tubule, loop of Henle, distal tubule, and collecting duct. What is the importance of the difference in permeability to water and solutes of the cells in the walls of the Loop of Henle and collecting duct?
10. ADH and RAAS both act on the nephrons, what is the difference between them?
1. What are the four processes of heat exchange?
2. What is the main difference between ecto and endotherms?
3. Describe the effect of vasodilation, vasoconstriction, and countercurrent heat exchange on an animal’s temperature.
4. Describe the effect of shivering and nonshivering thermogenesis on an endotherm.
5. What is torpor? What are the three kinds of torpor?
6. What is the thermostat of humans and other terrestrial mammals and how does it work?
1. What is the simplest organism with muscle fibers?
2. Describe the three types of vertebrate muscle tissues.
3. Define the following: tendon, origin, insertion, antagonistic pairs.
4. Describe the roles of the following in muscle contraction: ATP, acetylcholine, nerve impulse, calcium ions, troponin, tropomyosin, actin, myosin, sarcoplasmic reticulum, and sarcolemma (cell membrane).
5. What is the difference between a hydrostatic, exo-, and endoskeleton?
6. What is the difference between the axial and appendicular skeleton? Give examples of bones that belong to each.
7. What are joints? Give examples of each kind.
1. What are the main functions of the nervous system?
2. Describe the roles of the two types of cells that make up the nervous system.
3. Name the parts and describe the functions of a neuron.
4. Trace the pathway of a simple reflex action such as the knee-jerk reflex.
5. Describe the events that occur during nerve impulse transmission.
6. What is saltatory conduction and why is it important?
7. Describe the nervous system plans and features across taxa and relate this to the animal’s symmetry and lifestyle.
8. Compare the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system in terms of function.
9. Enumerate the parts of the vertebrate brain and describe their functions.