Respiration resources

Check the Downloads section for the presentation files. Some pertinent youtube vids:


Bio 2 LT2 guide questions

Hi all. Hope you are all safe and dry. Power just got restored to our area. Sorry for the delay.

All presentations are available on the Downloads tab.

Guide Questons for Vertebrate Circulation
1. Describe the plans of the circulatory systems of fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals and explain why these are suited to these organisms.
2. Describe what happens to the chambers and valves of the heart during each phase of the cardiac cycle.
3. Trace the flow of electrical stimulation in the heart.
4. What causes the lub dub sound of heartbeat?
5. Define the following: cardiac output, pulse, and blood pressure.
6. compare the structures of arteries, capillaries, and veins and relate these with their functions.
7. Why does blood slow down in capillary beds?
8. What is the function of precapillary sphincters?
9. Compare the osmotic and hydrostatic pressures at both ends of a capillary.
10. How do veins transport blood back to the heart?
11. How does a clot form?
12. What are the major functions of the lymphatic system?

Guide Questions for Respiration
These are already in the group discussion guide.
1. Differentiate between aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration in terms of amount of energy generated and regions of the cell in which they occur.
2. Differentiate between photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
3. Differentiate between the dark (Calvin cycle) and light reactions of photosynthesis.
4. Describe the adaptations of C3, C4, and CAM plants and the advantages of each adaptation.
5. Give examples of animals that use the following structures for gas exchange: cell surface, moist skin, gills, tracheal system/tracheae, and lungs.
6. Define ventilation and countercurrent exchange and explain how these mechanisms increase the amount of oxygen obtained by the gills of aquatic animals.
7. Trace the pathway of air in mammalian respiratory systems.
8. Differentiate among the breathing mechanisms of amphibians, reptiles and mammals, and birds.
9. Name the two regions of the brain that regulate breathing and describe their specific functions.
10. Describe some adaptations of deep-diving mammals to address their oxygen needs.

Additional questions:
11. What are the advantages and disadvantages of air/water as a respiratory medium?
12. Define tidal volume, vital capacity, and residual volume.
13. How does a rise in carbon dioxide levels in the bloodstream related to pH changes and oxygen levels?
14. Describe cooperativity and affinity as they apply to a hemoglobin molecule.
15. When does a Bohr shift occur?
16. Describe how carbon dioxide is transported by the bloodstream.
17. What is the difference between fetal and adult hemoglobin. Why?

The periodic exam is not solely multiple choice. The bulk is composed of respiration and circulation but some (around 15 questions) are from earlier lessons (biological organization to digestion). You can check this earlier post for some guide questions on that.

Aerobic bacteria

In response to a question by Nigel in class awhile ago, I did a little digging on aerobic bacteria and here’s an elaboration:

Aerobic bacteria can be divided into

  1. facultative anaerobes – can use oxygen but also have anaerobic means of respiration,
  2. microaerophiles – organisms that require oxygen to survive but require it in amounts less than that currently present in the atmosphere, and
  3. aerotolerant organisms – can survive in oxygen but use purely anaerobic means of respiration.

These bacteria use their cell membranes instead of mitochondria to utilize some oxygen during cellular respiration.

Bio Bingo Questions (for review)

This might help you review the many terms associated with our lessons. Though mostly multiple choice, the exam is not simply about recognizing terms but analysis as well. Good luck and God bless to all!

Human circulation

Average life span of a typical erythrocyte

Vessel carrying O2-rich blood from the left ventricle

Structure preventing backflow to the left ventricle

Condition caused by hardened calcium plaques in arteries

Vessels experiencing the highest blood velocities

Instrument that measures blood pressure

Main vein that collects blood from the upper part of the body

Contraction of cardiac muscles

right atrium –> —-  –> right ventricle

Chamber receiving blood from the inferior vena cava

Relaxation of cardiac muscles

Net-like protein forming the fabric of a blood clot

Blockage of coronary arteries leading to death of cardiac tissue

Conduct electrical signals to left and right ventricles

Chamber receiving blood from the pulmonary vein

Sound made when blood recoils against AV valves

Liquid portion of the blood

Blood cell fragments that play a role in clotting

Muscle rings that contract to prevent blood from supplying a specific organ

Only artery that carries O2-poor blood

Stretching of arteries as an effect of heartbeat

Part of EKG that signifies the start of atrial contraction

Part of EKG that signifies the start of ventricular contraction

Pacemaker of the heart

Structures that help blood flow through veins

Vessels with the largest total cross-sectional area

Vessels experiencing the lowest blood pressures

left atrium –> ___ –> left ventricle

Force exerted by blood on the walls of vessels

Heart rate x stroke volume


Cellular respiration process that occurs in the mitochondria

Plants able to photosynthesize even when stomates are closed

Photosynthesis reaction that produces sugar

Adaptation in fish gills that maximize gas exchange

Opening to tracheal system of insects found at sides of the abdomen

Conversion of a glucose molecule to 2 3C molecules in the cytoplasm of cells

Opening to the larynx composed of vocal cords and the space between

Movement of the O2 dissociation curve to the right in response to change in blood pH

Characteristic of hemoglobin that maximizes the # of O2 molecules bound to/released by it

Breathing control center of brain in charge of setting the rhythm of breathing

Maximum volume inhaled and exhaled during forced breathing

Chamber where air is sampled for odors, moistened, and filtered

Type of lung ventilation in reptiles and mammals

Unidirectional tubes in bird lungs

A by-product of anaerobic respiration

Projections from bird lungs that act as bellows

Thin-walled grapelike structures in human lungs

Graph showing O2 saturation of hemoglobin vs PO2

Attraction of hemoglobin to O2 molecules

Sheetlike muscle underlying human lungs

Respiratory pigment found in muscles

Most of CO2 in the blood occurs in this form

Air inhaled and exhaled with each normal breath

Main respiratory pigment in humans

Main respiratory pigment of molluscs

Type of ventilation in which air is forced into the lungs

Air left in the alveoli after forced exhalation

Y-shaped vocal organ of birds

Large organ that can temporarily store red-blood cells in seals

Tube of the respiratory tract reinforced with cartilage rings


Another name for antibodies

Reaction that is part of the second line of defense

Cell that directly produces anitibodies

Leukocyte can attack parasitic worms

Enzyme found in tears

Big eaters of the immune system that play roles in both 2nd and 3rd lines of defense

Process by which binding of an antigen to a lymphocyte’s receptor drives the creation of clones

Proteins produced by virus-infected cells that prevent other body cells from being infected

Any cell that can phagocytize a pathogen and display its antigens on its surface

Set of genes that code for self-proteins that play a role in presenting antigens

Body creates antibodies to the pathogen (type of immunity)

Any nonself molecule

Cells in connective tissue that release histamine

Programmed cell death caused NK cells

Type of acquired immunity that leads to the lysis of infected cells

Lymphocyte that can be stimulated by presence of intact antigens in bloodstream

Protein that causes fevers during infections

Lymphocyte that stimulates both B cells and cytotoxic T cells

Protein that causes dilation and increased permeability of blood vessels

Type of acquired immunity driven by B cells

Type of immunity that results from transfer of antibodies from one individual to another

Immune response to the first exposure to an antigen

Vaccines created with attenuated viruses are examples of this kind of immunity

Epithelial cells and their secretions part of this kind of immunity

Rapid and more effective immune response caused by subsequent exposure to antibodies

Type of self molecule produced by nucleated cells of the body

Type of self molecule produced by dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells

Most common type of phagocytic leukocyte

20-30 blood proteins that can cause cells to lyse

Cell that produces perforins causing infected body cells to lyse

LT2 pointers and review resources

  1. Vertebrate respiration and breathing
  2. Control centers that regulate breathing
  3. Gas exchange and pressure gradients
  4. Respiratory pigments
  5. Adaptations of deep-diving mammals
  6. Pathogens and disease
  7. Three major lines of defense
  8. Specific vs. non-specific immunity
  9. Active and passive immunity
  10. Artificial and natural immunity

Presentations can be downloaded from earlier posts.

Other resources:

  1. Cell-mediated immunity (swf)
  2. Humoral immunity (swf)
  3. Antibody action (wmv)