[Bio2] First Quarter Deadlines for GravPhoTruth

24 Sept, Th (3PM, after the Bio Perio)

  • Submit notebooks with First Quarter Notes (attach course outline) (up to 3% of grade)
  • Return/submit ungraded/revised SWs (up to 8% of grade)
  • Submit Data Sheet + Answers to Questions for the Mitosis in Onion Root Cells Activity (part of the 20% for lab activities)
  • Bio2 Postquarter Exam for those who missed the long test OR two quizzes

5 Oct, M (5PM)

  • Last day for submission of Portfolio (5% of grade)
  • Last day to answer the online end-of-quarter reflections (up to 1% of grade)

Bio2 First Periodic Exam General Guide Questions for Review for GravPhoTruth

Plant Hormones

  1. What are tropisms? Give examples of these.
  2. Describe the roles of abscisic acid, auxin, cytokinin, ethylene, and gibberellin in regulating plant growth.
  3. Describe how the Darwin and Went experiments led to the discovery of auxin as the major factor behind phototropism.

Endocrine System

  1. What are hormones?
  2. Relate the function of the endocrine system with that of the nervous system.
  3. Differentiate between (+) and (-) feedback. Why are feedback mechanisms important in regulating hormone production?
  4. Why can hormones only affect specific cells and not others?
  5. Describe the role of hormones in invertebrates.
  6. Differentiate between the mode of action of a peptide/protein hormone vs that of a steroid/thyroid hormone.
  7. Why are signal transduction pathways important?
  8. Describe the role of the hypothalamus in the endocrine system.
  9. Describe the sources and functions of the hormones found in p.899 of your \m/ bio book.
  10. Describe the role of negative feedback in the regulation of thyroid hormones and maintenance of blood glucose levels.
  11. Describe the roles of the hormones (GnRH, LH, FSH, estrogen, progesterone) secreted by the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary gland, and ovary in regulating the female reproductive cycle.

Reproductive System

  1. Compare asexual and sexual reproduction and discuss advantages and disadvantages of each.
  2. Describe the different mechanisms of asexual reproduction (e.g. fission, budding, gemmules, fragmentation).
  3. Relate the choice of reproductive strategy with the availability of mates and resources, environment, and the lifestyle of the organism.
  4. Compare internal and external fertilization and discuss advantages and disadvantages of each.
  5. Enumerate the parts and describe the functions of the male and female reproductive systems.
  6. Compare the structure of the sperm cell with that of the egg cell.
  7. Describe the events that occur during fertilization.
  8. Describe the events that occur during development.

Mitosis and the Cell Cycle

  1. Enumerate the roles of cell division.
  2. Describe the events in the G1, S, G2, and M phases of cell cycle.
  3. Differentiate between the following: centromere, centrioles, centrosomes; chromatin and chromosomes; sister chromatids and daughter chromosomes; interphase, mitosis, cytokinesis.
  4. Differentiate mitosis in a plant cell from mitosis in an animal cell.
  5. Describe the G1, G2, and Spindle assembly checkpoints.
  6. Describe five factors that control the cell cycle.
  7. Describe the behavior of cancer cells.
  8. Enumerate the causes of and therapies for cancer.
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[Bio2] Computer-aided activity for GravPhoTruth

  1. Answer page 1 of the handout.
  2. For pages 2 and 3, please use the following links to fill in the handouts. You may also use other reputable internet sources if you need them.
    1. Link1 (complete the quiz at the end and raise your hand to show me your perfect score!)
    2. Link2 (complete the quiz at the end and raise your hand to show me your perfect score!)
  3. [Bonus link–only if you have the time] Go through the game and show me the success! screen.

BIOTA50

URLs organized per topic

Red Team – Cell structure and function, the cell cycle, cellular transport mechanisms

  1. Cell cycle activity – page links to post showing how I implemented this activity in class.
  2. Animal cell explorer – a simple game to introduce some cellular process as well as cell parts and functions (sample low-level tasks would include asking students to list the processes and structures as they explore the game and provide a brief description of these, higher-order tasks might involve creating a short roleplaying activity or other analogies to introduce the concepts mentioned to other students).
  3. Cellcraft – a simple game to introduce some eukaryotic cell parts and functions  (sample low-level tasks would include asking students to list the processes and structures as they explore the game and provide a brief description of these, higher-order tasks might involve creating a short roleplaying activity or other analogies to introduce the concepts mentioned to other students)
  4. Cell defense, the plasma membrane – game/simulation that asks you to build your own cell membrane (you may start with a question asking students to predict what features a good cell membrane or barrier should have, an accompanying worksheet also illustrates how sequential questioning may be done as well)
  5. 3D animation of the inside of the cell – video for more advanced learners giving a virtual tour of the inside of the cell (suggested activity would be to have learners list 5-10 different structures shown in the animation, find out what they do, and create a story or narration for the part of the tour that shows these structures in action)
  6. BONUS links: CrashCourse Biology – entertaining summary for a unit on cell parts and functions, good for review before a summative assessment, The Cell Song – can be used as an inspiration for students to produce their own songs or poems to help them remember the different parts of the cell

Green Team – Molecules of life, photosynthesis and cellular respiration

  1. How enzymes work – page links to post showing how I implemented this activity in class
  2. Biomolecules – link to a page showing information on dehydration and condensation reaction, carbohydrates, and lipids
  3. Photosynthesis (simple overview) and photosynthesis (complex)
  4. Cellular respiration (simple overview) and cellular respiration (complex)
  5. Protein folding – with suggested assessment questions but requires you to download and play an external file and allow many programs to run
  6. BONUS links – Cellular respiration song to the tune of “I’ve got a feeling,” always a hit and an inspiration for my students to right their own nerdy songs and a cartoon version of cellular respiration by the Amoeba sisters

Blue Team – Nephron function, nerve impulse transmission, sliding filament theory of muscle contraction

  1. Kidney and nephron function site 1 and site 2
  2. Nerve impulse transmission – page links to post showing how I implemented this activity in class.
  3. Sliding filament theory of muscle contraction – page links to post showing how I implemented this activity in class.
  4. Maintaining homeostasis – an exercise showing the interdependence of body systems and simulates the role of the nervous and endocrine systems in maintaining balance

Orange Team – Central dogma of molecular biology, genetic engineering tools and techniques

  1. Site for The Search for the Genetic Material – accompanying site to the worksheet on the discovery of DNA as the genetic material
  2. Control of Gene Expression – accompanying link to the worksheet on the discovery of DNA as the genetic material
  3. Activity on biotechnology – accompanying link to the worksheet on biotechnology

Purple Team – Evolution and natural selection

  1. Activity on evolution and natural selection using this main site – to view sample questions, input any value in the google form provided on this page. Scroll down to see more links.

Workshop Materials

  1. Workshop 11 Handout
  2. Workshop 11 Presentation

[Bio1] Guide questions for our last Perio

RESPIRATION AND GAS EXCHANGE
1. Trace the pathway of air in mammalian respiratory systems.
2. Differentiate among the breathing mechanisms of amphibians, reptiles and mammals, and birds (use the terms positive and negative pressure breathing).
3. Define tidal volume, vital capacity, and residual volume.
4. Name the two regions of the brain that regulate breathing and describe their specific functions.
5. How does a rise in carbon dioxide levels in the bloodstream related to pH changes and oxygen levels?
6. Describe cooperativity and affinity as they apply to a hemoglobin molecule.
7. When does a Bohr shift occur?
8. Describe how carbon dioxide is transported by the bloodstream.
9. What is the difference between fetal and adult hemoglobin. Why?
10. Describe three adaptations of deep-diving mammals to address their oxygen needs while underwater.

OSMOREGULATION AND EXCRETION
1. Differentiate between osmoconformers and osmoregulators.
2. What osmoregulatory adaptations do marine and freshwater fishes employ to enable them to survive in their habitats?
3. Where do N-wastes come from?
4. What are the 3 major types of N-wastes? Rank them in terms of toxicity, amount of water needed for excretion, and energy needed for synthesis. What kind of animal would excrete a given type of N-waste? Why?
5. What are the osmoregulatory structures of the following animals: cnidarians, echinoderms, freshwater protists and sponges?
6. Describe the 4 major process associated with excretory systems.
7. What are the excretory systems of the following animals: flatworms, roundworms, annelids, molluscs, crustaceans, insects, fishes and other vertebrates?
8. Trace the flow of N-wastes in the human excretory system from its origin in the liver to its exit from the body as urine (name all the blood vessels and structures associated with the nephron).
9. Describe the processes that occur in the glomerulus, proximal tubule, loop of Henle, distal tubule, and collecting duct. What is the importance of the difference in permeability to water and solutes of the cells in the walls of the Loop of Henle and collecting duct?
10. ADH and RAAS both act on the nephrons, what is the difference between them?

THERMOREGULATION
1. What are the four processes of heat exchange?
2. What is the main difference between ecto and endotherms?
3. Describe the effect of vasodilation, vasoconstriction, and countercurrent heat exchange on an animal’s temperature.
4. Describe the effect of shivering and nonshivering thermogenesis on an endotherm.
5. What is torpor? What are the three kinds of torpor?
6. What is the thermostat of humans and other terrestrial mammals and how does it work?

MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM
1. What is the simplest organism with muscle fibers?
2. Describe the three types of vertebrate muscle tissues.
3. Define the following: tendon, origin, insertion, antagonistic pairs.
4. Describe the roles of the following in muscle contraction: ATP, acetylcholine, nerve impulse, calcium ions, troponin, tropomyosin, actin, myosin, sarcoplasmic reticulum, and sarcolemma (cell membrane).
5. What is the difference between a hydrostatic, exo-, and endoskeleton?
6. What is the difference between the axial and appendicular skeleton? Give examples of bones that belong to each.
7. What are joints? Give examples of each kind.

NERVOUS SYSTEM
1. What are the main functions of the nervous system?
2. Describe the roles of the two types of cells that make up the nervous system.
3. Name the parts and describe the functions of a neuron.
4. Trace the pathway of a simple reflex action such as the knee-jerk reflex.
5. Describe the events that occur during nerve impulse transmission.
6. What is saltatory conduction and why is it important?
7. Describe the nervous system plans and features across taxa and relate this to the animal’s symmetry and lifestyle.
8. Compare the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system in terms of function.
9. Enumerate the parts of the vertebrate brain and describe their functions.

[Bio1] Resources for the computer-aided activity on the nervous system

  1. Think about it! 🙂
  2. Colored version of the diagram in the handout on Diversity of Nervous Systems
  3. Neurons and neuroglia
  4. Reflex arc
  5. Nerve impulse transmission and take the quiz here to test understanding. Show me the results (raise your hand).
  6. Myelin sheaths and saltatory conduction
  7. Divisions of the nervous system and autonomic nervous system
  8. Use any reputable source

[Bio1] Computer-aided activity on the musculoskeletal system

Click on all the links and load them in different tabs

  1. Muscle structure – http://brookscole.cengage.com/chemistry_d/templates/student_resources/shared_resources/animations/muscles/muscles.html
  2. Sarcomere structure – http://highered.mheducation.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter10/animation__sarcomere_contraction.html (also answer the quiz afterward and show me your perfect score)
  3. Sliding filament theory of muscle contraction – http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/patestas/animations/myosin.html

At the back of the sheet, answer the following questions

4. Design an activity or game that will introduce people to how the sliding filament theory works

5. View the animation on bone growth and repair and create a flowchart showing how this is done. Use the animations in the following link to aid you:   http://depts.washington.edu/bonebio/ASBMRed/growth.html

[Bio1] Chicken Wing Dissection Prelab

On the assigned day, each team should bring

  • 2 paper or plastic plates
  • 2 chicken wings (fresh, thawed)
  • 1 hand soap
  • 1 packet of dishwashing liquid

and answers to the Prelab

PRELAB ACTIVITY

You will study the structure of the human arm and consider how this maybe similar to that of a chicken wing. During the lab, keep in mind that the structure of raw chicken may contain several different disease-causing species of Salmonella bacteria. To avoid infection, do not touch your eyes, nose, or mouth at any time while working with the chicken wing.

On a sheet of pad paper, draw and label the gross internal structure of the human arm with the following structures: muscles (biceps brachii, brachialis, brachioradialis, triceps brachii, flexor carpi, extensor carpi), bones (humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges), and associated tendons.

Refer to your drawing as you discuss the following points below:

  1. Which bone(s) is (are) found in the upper arm? Which bone(s) is (are) found in the lower arm?
  2. Muscles can only pull, they cannot push. Therefore most muscles work in pairs. Name the antagonistic pairs of muscles that a) causes the elbow to flex and extend, and b) causes the wrist to bend upward and downward.
  3. How do you think the structures in a chicken wing will be similar to those in the human arm? How do you think they will be different? Justify your answers.

Submit this before performing the dissection.